Lung cancer - diagnosis , stage , symptoms, treatment


1. Lung cancer and its classification

2. symptoms of lung cancer

3. stages of the disease

4. Metastatic lung cancer

5. Causes

6. Treatment of lung cancer

lung cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from mucosal tissues and glands of the bronchi and lungs.Today it is one of the most common causes of death in the land - 72% of patients die within a year after the diagnosis of lung cancer.Moreover, 7 of the 10 cases - people over 65 years.Every year, there are nearly one million new cases of the disease in the world.

The article describes about the symptoms of lung cancer and the stage of the disease, as well as the existing methods of its diagnosis and treatment.

Lung cancer and its classification

sign is lung cancer is divided into root, peripheral and mixed.

radical cancer is also called a central, it accounts for 45-50% of all cases of lung cancer diagnosis.Malignant cells are localized in the bronchial mucosa in the stem, and the shared initial part.The

tumor begins as a small nodule, and then take a branched form.

peripheral lung cancer is diagnosed in 50-55% of cases and is located in the mucous membrane of the peripheral segmental bronchus, as well as its smaller branches.Peripheral cancer grows as a unit and may not manifest itself until the random survey, sometimes the first manifestation of his hematogenous metastases are frequent.

Mixed or massive lung cancer is diagnosed in 2-5% of cases.Massive cancer develops in the form of a soft, whitish tissue, which holds a stake or the whole lung.

There is another classification, which depends on what elements tumor formed.From this point of view it is divided into squamous cell cancer, small cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell, mixed, etc.The most aggressive form - is small cell lung cancer, which is rapidly and extensively distributed throughout the body and most often affects men smokers.The most common form - squamous cell carcinoma, this type of the disease is diagnosed in 50-60% of patients.

symptoms of lung cancer

Signs of lung depend on where the first tumor site was located.When the central cancer, when the tumor has developed into a source of a large bronchus mucosa, cancer manifests itself quite early.In this situation, develop the following symptoms of lung cancer - a tumor irritating the mucous membrane of the bronchus and violates Airway.It is manifested as an abnormally slow and shallow breathing, which is termed hypoventilation.There may come atelectasis - spadenie lobe.After that, the tumor grows through the nerve trunks and pleura, and to the signs of lung cancer joins pain.

After germination of the tumor in bronchus patients complain of the symptoms of lung cancer such as dry cough and cough with sputum light.Then there are the impurities of blood, sputum becomes purulent, the body temperature rises, there is shortness of breath and malaise.Cancer pneumonia can be cured easily, but just as easily again affects the lungs.Then it appears the symptoms of lung cancer, such as pleural effusion and pain.With the defeat of the vagus nerve can occur paralysis of the vocal muscles, as if struck by the phrenic nerve - diaphragm paralysis.Germination of the tumor in the pericardial sac causing pain in my heart.With the defeat of the vena cava may cause such symptoms of lung cancer, as a violation of circulation of blood and lymph flow in the upper half of the body, neck and head, which is why the face is puffy, and the veins in the neck, arms and chest - swollen.

If the tumor was struck by the peripheral part of the lung, lung cancer symptoms may not appear for a long time, since most of the lung tissue of painful endings there.But eventually, when the tumor site affects the bronchi, pleura and adjacent organs, in the center of the tumor having decay and bleeding, and after them, coughing blood, sputum, hoarseness, mediastinal displacement and compression syndrome of the superior vena cava tumor.

There are common symptoms of lung cancer - the deterioration of intoxication, shortness of breath, weakness, weight loss, fever, which are characteristic of all malignant tumors.These are usually added to a violation of calcium metabolism, finger deformation, resembling the "drumsticks", dermatitis.More severe symptoms of lung cancer - metastasis in vital organs, lungs decay, bronchial obstruction and pulmonary hemorrhage.

stages of the disease

In the domestic classification is customary to distinguish four stages of lung cancer:

- I stage of lung cancer.The tumor reaches 3 cm in size. The pathological formation of one segment affects the lung or bronchus are no metastases.In a number of cases of lung cancer diagnosis at this stage it is carried out in time.

- II stage of lung cancer.Malignancies may reach 6 cm in greatest dimension.A tumor usually still localized in one lung segment, or within the segmental bronchus, but already there are metastases in the lymph nodes and pulmonary bronchopulmonary type.

- III stage of lung cancer.Tumor more than 6 cm in diameter. It is possible the spread of tumors to adjacent share of the bronchi or lungs.Metastatic lung cancer appear in the bifurcation, tracheobronchial and paratracheal lymph nodes.

- IV stage of lung cancer.Tumor extends to adjacent organs.It joins an extensive metastasis cancer pleurisy.

Metastatic lung cancer

itself, the term is a secondary metastasis pathological focus, which arises from the transfer of tumor cells from the source of the primary lesion.Metastatic lung cancer are Lymphogenous, hematogenous and implantation.The most likely spread of metastases - in closely spaced lymph nodes.Initially, affected nodes at the place where the equity is divided into segmental bronchus, and then along the bronchi equity, further along the main bronchus and lung vascular roots and so on until the subclavian and supraclavicular lymph nodes.Spreading blood metastasis of lung cancer grow in the liver, lung, kidney, bone, brain and adrenal glands.During germination of pleural tumor cells may metastasize and pleura.


disease most common and well-known cause of the disease - tobacco smoking.Because of smokers among men than among women, and a strong half of humanity malignancies hit more often.Second-hand smoke is no less dangerous activities.Studies show that 10-15% of patients are not touched cigarettes.

second most common cause of the disease - effect of radon gas.Gas formed during radioactive decay of radium, which causes mutation, including the formation of malignant tumors.

various lung diseases and can cause asbestos.Once getting into the lung tissue, asbestos fibers are not displayed in a lifetime.Today its use is banned in many countries.

Recent studies of the American Cancer Society says that the disease can cause effects of dust particles.Moreover, increasing the concentration of dust in the air at 1% increases the risk of cancer by 14%.According to recent reports the cause of the disease can also be a human papilloma virus, simian virus 40, cytomegalovirus.All of these affect the cell cycle and may provoke uncontrolled cell division.

Treatment of lung cancer

Treatment is carried out in a comprehensive and includes surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy and radiation, or one of the methods depending on the patient's condition.

Surgical treatment of lung cancer is held on the first or second stage of the disease or in 10-35% of cases.It is not always a positive effect, especially if there were metastases in other organs.In 25-45% of cases, surgical treatment can extend the life of 5 years.

Radiation therapy is often used in combination with chemotherapy and surgery.This method of treatment of lung cancer consists of placing the radioactive pellets in close proximity to the tumor through a bronchoscope.Radiotherapy limiting tumor growth, but has numerous side effects.Therefore, a thorough examination of the patient is carried out before its purpose and used all available means of diagnosis of lung cancer, to assess the feasibility of this method of treatment.

lung cancer treated with chemotherapy regardless of the type and stage of development.Chemotherapy drugs administered orally or intravenously, therapy is usually conducted in a clinic-term cycles.This method also has many side effects, particularly in the treatment of lung cancer chemotherapy are observed hair loss, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting.After completion of these symptoms usually disappear.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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