Intestinal cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the intestinal mucosa. The disease is more common in people over forty. Equally often they are sick men and women.
The exact cause of the disease is not established. Experts call the main factors that provoke the appearance of intestinal cancer.
One of the main causes of the disease is malnutrition. Increases the risk of disease food ration, poor on fiber, which is dominated by meat products, animal fats, alcoholic beverages.
Doctors point to a genetic predisposition to the disease. This factor is significant in the case of several family members on intestinal cancer at a young age.
There are diseases that are called precancerous for this disease. People suffering from these diseases have a high probability of a malignant tumor of the intestine. Such diseases include:
All symptoms of bowel cancer specialists are divided into general, nonspecific, rare.
Common signs of bowel cancer. These signs appear as a result of the influence of a malignant tumor on the functioning of the intestine. The main one is the presence of blood impurities in the stool of the patient. In this case, blood is not released after emptying, but is present in the feces. Fecal masses damage the location of the tumor, which causes bleeding. With the further development of the disease, along with an admixture of blood in the stool, mucus and pus are found which have a fetid odor. This is the result of rotting processes in the intestines, which are caused by a tumor.
Because of the development of the tumor in different parts of the intestine, the patient has manifestations of intestinal obstruction. In addition to the remaining symptoms of bowel cancer, weight and bloating after eating, prolonged constipation, and a weakened movement of stool masses through the intestine are added. A chair can change color, become liquid. There are frequent desires for emptying.
In a patient with intestinal cancer, the appetite often decreases or disappears, the body weight decreases. At the same time, there can be a sharp non-acceptance of some food products, most often protein, meat, fats of animal origin.
Nonspecific signs of bowel cancer. Such symptoms of the disease appear when a malignant tumor develops in nonspecific places, for example, in the caecum. The development of a tumor often contributes to intoxication of the body. At the same time there are lowering of arterial pressure, pallor of the skin, cold sweat, general weakness.
With the development of cancer in the right half of the intestine, there is often aching or paroxysmal pain in the right hypochondrium. Tumor in the large intestine can be palpated.
Nonspecific symptoms of bowel cancer are nausea and vomiting, which do not bring relief to the patient. After them, an unpleasant aftertaste remains in the mouth, which is difficult to get rid of. In some cases, the patient's temperature rises sharply. Its increase is provoked by the inflammatory process, which develops because of the tumor. Sometimes cancer is accompanied by the development of colitis of the intestine( inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine).
Rarely seen signs of bowel cancer. The development of the disease has an individual character for each patient. This is due to the fact that each person has his own particular body, immunity. Some patients do not have the sensation of a foreign body in the body. Others feel a constant discomfort, which leads to frequent false calls for emptying.
Many patients suffer very long, up to several weeks, constipation. In this case, they have pain in the intestines, incontinence of gases. The peculiarity of such constipation is that they do not lend themselves to treatment with medications or special diets. The patient feels bad, quickly gets tired.
Stages of bowel cancer characterize the extent of the spread of a malignant tumor. Due to this classification, the doctor can more accurately choose the method of treatment and predict the further development of the disease.
There are following stages of bowel cancer.
Zero stage. The tumor is located within the intestinal mucosa, there are no metastases.
The first stage. The tumor did not penetrate the intestinal wall, there is no metastasis of intestinal cancer.
The second stage. The tumor penetrates the entire thickness of the intestinal wall, it can germinate into it, metastasis is absent.
Third stage. The intestinal cancer metastases penetrated the lymph nodes.
Fourth stage. Remote metastases penetrated other tissues and organs, for example, into the liver, lungs.
In the treatment of bowel cancer, traditional methods of treating cancer are used. These include surgical treatment, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
The method of treatment is chosen by the doctor, based on the patient's condition, size, stage of development, localization of the malignant tumor, the presence of metastases of intestinal cancer.
Surgical treatment is to remove the tumor. This method gives a good result in the case when the tumor has not penetrated into nearby organs and tissues. The type of surgical operation is chosen depending on the location of the cancer tumor and the degree of its germination into the intestine. Surgical treatment of bowel cancer is usually performed in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
The essence of chemotherapy is reduced to the admission of special chemotherapy drugs that are capable of destroying cancer cells. Usually, chemotherapy is performed before surgery to reduce the tumor or after surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells. The course of chemotherapy is selected for each patient individually, given many factors, since this type of treatment has many serious side effects.
Radiation therapy is a method based on the irradiation of cancer cells. This method of treating bowel cancer is used before or after the operation. Only in the case of treatment of rectal cancer radiation therapy is often the main method of therapy.
Often in the treatment of the disease, biologic therapy of labeled exposure is additionally used. In this case, an angiogenesis inhibitor is used, a biological preparation that suppresses the growth of blood vessels inside and around the tumor. As a result, the blood supply to the tumor is cut off, which is necessary for her to grow and spread.
1. Reasons for bowel cancer
2. Symptoms of
disease 3. Bowel cancer stages
4. Treatment of
This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.
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