Purpura - types, forms , causes, symptoms , treatment


1. The causes of the disease

2. Types disease

3. Thrombocytopenic Purpura

4. Thrombocytopenic purpura in children

5. Treatmentpurpura

purpura - a stain the skin or mucosal tissue as a result of release of red blood cells of the blood vessels, most often from the capillaries.

The article discussed in detail the main types of the disease - idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and.Also, we'll discuss the features of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and children.

Causes of

disease Cause of purple called bleeding tendency.Out of blood disorders caused its abnormal clotting or high permeability of small blood vessels.

These disorders can occur as a result of many reasons:

  • pathological changes of platelet level;
  • effects of certain allergic reactions;
  • coagulation disorders after exposure to toxic substances - bacterial toxins, chemicals, drugs;
  • disease inflammatory nature;
  • congestion.

Types The following types of the disease purpura:

- thrombocytopenic;

- rheumatoid;

- drug (toxic);

- haemorrhagic;

- immune;

- complicated.

Thrombocytopenic purpura Thrombocytopenic purpura

- a disease characterized by a tendency to bleeding due to lower platelet levels in the blood.This type of purpura is the most common disease related to hemorrhagic diathesis.Usually the disease first appears in childhood.Among the adult population purpura is more common in women.

Depending on the duration and nature are the following forms of the disease:

  • acute - characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood less than 150h109 / L for six months from the onset of the disease;
  • Chronic - develops if the platelet count does not recover for six months;
  • recurrent purpura - appears again decrease platelet levels after recovery.

exact cause of thrombocytopenic purpura type is not set.Experts point to the possible risk factors of the disease: a viral or bacterial infection, hypothermia or overheating in the sun, taking certain medicines, surgery and trauma.

Under the influence of these factors decreases in blood platelets or platelets to form antibodies.Hatched antigens (viruses, drugs components) are attached to platelets.As a result, the body produces antibodies and tries to destroy complexes with antigens of platelets in the spleen.Because of this, the duration of the existence of platelets is significantly reduced.Reduction of blood contributes to damage of blood vessels.As a result, there is bleeding, changed contractility of vessels, broken blood clot formation.So developing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura view.

symptoms are mottled sinyachkovye rashes on the skin and bleeding in the mucous membranes.Rash is a different hue from yellow to bluish, and of various sizes.She reminds painless bruises, which are arranged asymmetrically.Most often, a rash appears at night without a previous injury.

Besides the skin and mucous hemorrhage are at the bottom of the eye, the sclera, vitreous, the eardrum.quite rare dangerous bleeding in the brain of man.It is preceded by the appearance of headache, dizziness, bleeding in some organs.

thrombocytopenic kind of disease is of three varieties:

  • thrombocytopenic purpura;
  • idiopathic purpura;
  • vascular purpura.

When idiopathic purpura platelets are destroyed as a result of an autoimmune process caused by the action of viruses or taking certain medications.With this type of purpura is dominated by a rash in the form of bruises and petechiae.They appear mostly on the legs of the child as a result of even minor injuries.

Thrombocytopenic purpura in children

Thrombocytopenic purpura in children has been ranked among the hemorrhagic diseases.Most often it occurs in girls under 14 years old.

Children up to two years, the disease has a severe course.It begins acutely, without previously transferred infectious diseases.

often cause thrombocytopenic purpura in children called transferred vaccination, especially BCG (vaccine against tuberculosis).

symptoms of idiopathic purpura in children are bleeding and bleeding, which often appear in the mucous membrane of the nose and gums.In girls, puberty disease often causes profuse uterine bleeding.

Idiopathic purpura in children and adolescents is often the cause of dangerous diseases - hemorrhagic syndrome.It is dangerous to frequent bleeding of the nasal mucous membranes, bleeding in the joints, skin, gastrointestinal bleeding.

treatment purpura

main goal of treatment is to reduce the production of purple antiplatelet antibodies and their inability to bind to platelets.

Drug therapy is the use of the following medicines:

  • steroids - prednisolone, hydrocortisone;
  • immunoglobulins - Octagam, Intraglobin F, normal human immunoglobulin;
  • interferon alfa - is used for treatment failure glucocorticoids;
  • vinca alkaloids pink - vinblastine, vincristine;
  • Danazol;
  • Cyclophosphamide;
  • Azathioprine.

If bleeding is used hemostatic drugs, aminocaproic acid.When uterine bleeding women prescribe oxytocin.

If there is a possibility of hemorrhage in the brain, is used in the treatment of purpura infusion (infusion) of platelets.The therapeutic effect of this procedure temporary.

Surgical treatment purpura involves removal of the spleen (splenectomy).Surgery is carried out in the absence of effect of conservative therapy, there is a risk of heavy bleeding.

common treatments purpura is plazmafarez: plasma purification of antibodies and toxins by filtering on special devices.

the treatment of vascular purpura type of patient is prescribed hypoallergenic diet.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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