Bedsores - Causes , prevention and treatment for


1. causes leading to the formation of pressure u


2. degree of development of the disease

3. Prevention of bedsores

4. Treatment of affected areas

Bedsores - areas of necrosis (necrosis) of the skin and tissue surrounding them, which occur at a constant pressure on the tissue with abnormal cell nutrition processes.

metabolism and nutrition throughout the body of his circulatory system is provided by means of the smallest blood vessels - capillaries.The walls of capillaries are very elastic.When they squeezed the blood flow in the tissue slows down or stops completely.Such compression occurs when a person is sitting or lying down.When the duration of circulatory disorders for more than two hours of developing eating disorders (ischemic) tissues, which leads to necrosis (necrosis).Healthy people are not usually in that position for so long.Bedsores develop in recumbent or sitting patients with impaired movement functions.

causes leading to the formation of pressure ulcers

main cause of bedsores - compression of skin tissues between the bone and the solid surface.

Such compression, resulting in pressure sores can be caused by certain factors.

1.Postoyannoe pressure.The pressure of this type occurs when the skin and subcutaneous tissue remains clamped between the bone and a solid surface over time.The pressure of blood flow significantly exceeds the pressure in the capillaries of delivering nutrients to the tissues and oxygen.In the cells of energy starvation occurs, and they are damaged.In this case, pressure ulcers often formed in places that do not have a sufficient array of muscle - in blades, sacrum, spine, elbows, knees, hips.

2.Trenie.This movement occurs when a person changes posture or movement of other people.Skin friction occurs on any surface, usually sheets.When wet skin friction will be stronger.Skin permanently damaged and develop bedsores.

3.Skolzhenie.Motion occurs at two planes in different directions.Usually this happens when the head of the bed climbs.Thus sick person slides down, resulting in damage to tissues and blood vessels.Thus, increasing the risk of bedsores.

There are many factors that significantly increase the risk of pressure sores:

  • advanced age of the patient;
  • significant weight loss;
  • desensitization;
  • insufficient fluid intake and poor nutrition;
  • overly dry or moist skin;
  • incontinence;
  • disease in which blood flow is deteriorating;
  • frequent muscle cramps;
  • violation of the patient's consciousness;
  • smoking.

Degrees of

disease are four degrees of development of pressure sores.

first degree.Redness appears on areas of the skin is squeezed, but the skin still intact.Hyperemia (redness) does not pass even after compression.

second degree of development of pressure sores.There is a violation of the shallow surface of the skin, which often extends to the subcutaneous tissue.There has been a partial detachment of the top layer of the skin.

third degree.There is a breakdown of the skin, formation of ulcers.Expanding, ulcers penetrate the muscle layer.Of the affected areas due to expire liquid discharge.

fourth degree of development of pressure sores, the most severe.There is a loss of all soft tissue.Formed cavity, exposing tendons, sometimes, and bones.

Prevention of bedsores

Prevention of bedsores is mandatory for people with total or partial immobility.It is possible to identify the main measures to prevent bedsores.

1.Umenshenie compression, friction and displacement of tissues.Make sure that the patient's bed is flat, without bumps and hollows.To minimize the load on the skin a minimum, you need every 2-3 hours to change the position of the patient's body.Under the bony prominences good underlay pad with a pen or a foam.For the prevention of pressure ulcers on the extremities using special bags of millet or other large grain.

most effective means of pressure ulcers is a special mattress.Mattress from bedsores eliminates the main cause of their formation - squeezing of the skin.It may consist of air cylinders or cells.Air cylinders or mattress cells from bedsores tubes connected to a compressor.With it automatically every 6-8minut spooled and deflate different parts of the mattress.Due to the effect of constant massage pressure is evenly distributed throughout the patient's body surface.With the help of decubitus mattress from normal human blood circulation, respiration and nutrition of tissues.

addition, there are other means of pressure sores.For patients who are a long time in a wheelchair or a wheelchair, apply special anti-bedsore cushions.They are made of elastic foam, latex foam or inflatable cells.Under the skin, which are subjected to pressure, it is possible to enclose a rubber ring, which also prevents the occurrence of bedsores.

2.Tschatelnaya patient personal hygiene and performing procedures that reduce skin irritation.For the prevention of pressure ulcers it is important to conduct regular toilet patient.For washing is best to use baby soap, sponge or loofah made of cotton material.After washing, the skin must be promakivat, and not wipe.Regularly air baths should be done to areas of the body where there is a risk of pressure sores.After washing, use a special powder, creams, ointments.Well proven such means of pressure ulcers as Miramistin, Agrosulfan, Dermazin, Levomekol, Vulnuzan.In any case, it is better if these drugs the patient will select the treating physician.

Treatment of affected areas

treatment of bedsores I and II degree of conservative and usually lasts a few weeks.Bedsores IIІ and IV are often treated using surgical methods, while not always possible to cure.

Early treatment of bedsores reduce the pressure that has caused them.To do this, change the position of the patient support device is used.

then removed all damaged, dead and infected tissue.At this stage, the treatment of bedsores using the following methods:

  • washing of wounds, the use of special trays and dressing;
  • use of chemical enzymes that break down dead tissue;
  • surgical removal of damaged tissue.

treated wounds periodically washed with saline, and put a fresh bandage.

When infected bedsores requires local or general treatment with antibacterial drugs.non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy surgical treatment of pressure sores.Type of surgery depends on the location of the lesion, its size and severity.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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