Types , Causes, Symptoms , Treatment prolaktinomy


1. causes of the disease and its types

2. Symptoms of prolactinoma

3. Diagnosis and treatment of prolactinomas

prolactinoma (synonyms - prolactinoma pituitary,prolactin adenoma) - a benign hormone-active pituitary tumor.

pituitary gland - an appendage of the bottom surface (base) of the brain and its function is to produce hormones that are responsible for the processes of growth, metabolism and reproductive processes.One of these hormones is prolactin - a hormone which is meant to ensure the normal lactation (breastfeeding) women.However, a minor amount of prolactin produced in the body of any person.Excessive secretion of this hormone in both men and women, which has nothing to do with lactation leads to various violations of the natural processes of the body.

causes of the disease and its types

causes of pituitary prolactinomas, as well as many other endocrine diseases is not fully known.Scientists tie occurrence of the disease with genetic disorders, in particular i

nherited disease such as multiple endocrine neoplasia, at which prolactin produced excessively and other pituitary hormones.

There are only two kinds of prolactin:

1. Intrasellyarnaya mikroprolaktinoma - pituitary tumor diameter up to 1 cm, which is within the sella.

2. If the tumor is more than a centimeter, it usually goes beyond the sella, and called ekstrasellyarnoy macroprolactinoma.

Practice shows that in males is most often diagnosed makroprolaktinomu, women - mikroprolaktinomu.Perhaps this is due to late referral of men for the treatment of disease.

Symptoms of prolactinoma

pituitary prolactinoma is a hormone-active tumors, ie, prolactin, which it produces, is released into the blood.Excessive amounts of the hormone prolactin reduces the production of sex hormones, testosterone in men reduced level of estrogen in women.

Low testosterone levels in men rise to a prolactinoma symptoms:

  • disappearing body scalp and face
  • increased mammary gland in some cases are allocated
  • milk decreased sexual desire
  • impaired erection, atrophied testicles
  • violatedmuscle tone.

Against the background of low levels of estrogen in women occur following prolaktinomy symptoms:

  • menstrual cycle or a complete cessation of its
  • inability to become pregnant - as a result of lack of ovulation
  • constant or frequency of the milk from the mammary glands
  • vaginal dryness
  • weight gain (due to estrogen deficiency)
  • disruptions of the endocrine system (hyperandrogenism)

in addition, there are some common symptoms of a prolactinoma, a manifestation of which is independent of the gender of the person.Among them:

  • blurred vision, double vision - is the result of compression of the tumor of the optic nerve (usually observed in macroprolactinoma)
  • disorders of the nervous system: headache, anxiety, irritability, depression
  • due to leaching of minerals from the bones occurs Osteoporosis.

Quite often disrupted production by the pituitary gland and other hormones that pulls a breach by the other body systems.

In some cases, when the prolactin concentration in the blood is low (gipoprolaktinemiya) prolaktinoma asymptomatic.If a significant concentration of hormone (hyperprolactinaemia), and in the case of large tumors symptoms listed above prolactinoma usually manifest themselves.

Diagnosis and treatment of prolactinomas

Excess prolactin observed not only in prolaktinome pituitary diseases such as hypothyroidism, kidney failure, and others also have a higher level of the hormone.For this reason, a correct diagnosis is primarily to exclude these and other diseases.

¬ęprolaktinoma" Diagnosis is made after:

1. Analysis of the blood, which helps to identify the level of hormones (including prolactin) in your blood.The concentration of prolactin in excess of 200 ng / ml - a sure clinical symptom of prolactinoma.

2. The computer and magnetic resonance tomography.With the help of these studies, you can see the three-dimensional image of the pituitary prolactinomas, learn its size and precise location, that is, to determine whether it is in the Turkish saddle, or goes beyond it.

The most common treatment of pituitary prolactinoma done medically.Medications Bromocriptine, Parlodel, Cabergoline, Dostinex, norprolak used to inhibit the production of prolactin.Bromocriptine, despite its high cost, it is well established in the treatment of prolactinomas, thanks to its action if the tumor does not disappear completely, then at least reduced in size.

For this reason, it is recommended to apply medication even before surgery in order to make the operation easier for the patient.

With small size of the tumor, doctors recommend selective transsphenoidal prostatectomy (hypophysectomy) - surgery to remove the pituitary prolactinoma.The most common surgical treatment of prolactinomas is recommended for young women who wish to have children.Such minimally invasive surgery, since it is not necessary to conduct the craniotomy.It is through the human nose.

After surgery in 85% of cases occur in remission mikroprolaktinomy.Regarding macroprolactinoma, the surgery is not the most efficient method of its treatment, it is used only in case of indications, particularly if prolactinoma squeezes the optic nerve.

In 5% of cases occur after surgery complications, such as diabetes insipidus, bleeding, meningitis.Within five years after the surgery, almost every second person-operative relapse pituitary prolactinoma.

medical and surgical treatment for prolactinomas often complement each other, which increases the chances of the patient's recovery.

In some cases, for the treatment of pituitary prolactinoma doctors recommend radiation therapy, in particular, it can be shown to men and women who do not wish to have children.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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