23 May

Leprosy - the pathogen , symptoms , treatment methods

Contents:

1. General characteristics of the disease

2. Symptoms of leprosy

3. Treatment of diseases

4. leprosy disease in the modern world

Leprosy(in medical theory - leprosy, Hansen's disease, etc.) - a chronic granulomatosis (inflamed nodules);an infectious disease that affects mainly the skin and peripheral nervous system.

General characteristics of the disease

causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - acid- and alcohol-resistant bacteria with a particular cycle of reproduction and the ability to maintain long-term viability is the human body.The source of infection - a sick man, the main route of transmission of leprosy - airborne, and subject to possible violations integrity of the skin and the transdermal route of infection.

However, infected with leprosy are not so easy.This requires the concurrence of at least two conditions: prolonged contact with the patient (eg, cohabitation) and immunogenetic instability to the causative agent of the disease.

At the end of the twentieth century, scientists have shown that carriers other than the sick person infection are some animals (armadillos, monkeys), fish, in addition, the causative agent of leprosy is present in soil and water bodies.

itself Mycobacterium leprae causes all the horrible symptoms of leprosy after they develop secondary bacterial infections, which are usually present in the injured tissue deprived areas of sensitivity.

Symptoms of leprosy

Feature leprosy disease - its long incubation period, an average of 3-7 years.For many years (even known 40-year incubation period), the disease may not manifest themselves symptomatically.

Subsequently, the latent period of leprosy symptoms are so vague that it can be easily confused with other diseases or did not see.

In addition, the spectrum of manifestations of leprosy in the first place depends on the form of the disease: tuberculoid or lepromatous.With the defeat of lepromatous form it is exposed to mainly human skin, with tuberculoid - predominantly the nervous system.

possible early symptoms of leprosy:

  • malaise, decreased performance, fatigue, feeling of chill;
  • limb disorders manifest themselves sensitivity numbness, tingling, pins and needles;
  • changes in skin color;
  • skin rashes of various shapes, placement, size and color;
  • various nodes, papules, bumps on the skin;
  • rash on the mucous membranes;
  • inflammation of the nose, stuffy nose, bleeding from it;
  • loss of eyelashes and eyebrows;
  • decrease in contractile ability of muscles;
  • violation of the sensitivity of the surface as a consequence of the partial paralysis of peripheral nerves;
  • trophic changes of the skin of neurogenic origin up to the occurrence of venous ulcers;
  • various vascular disorders, marbling of the skin;
  • violation of sweating;
  • increase in inguinal and axillary lymph nodes.

All of the above symptoms of leprosy associated with superficial skin lesions, mucous membranes and nerves, and this explains the fact that the causative agent of leprosy "works" mainly in their contacts with the tissues of the air.

In the absence of the correct diagnosis and therefore treatment of leprosy, still disguised as dermatological disease inevitably progresses.

For many years, a patient being treated for a non-existent diseases, meanwhile, serious illness leprosy slowly makes it invalid:

  • distorted appearance, facial features;
  • constitutes neurotrophic ulcers;
  • affects the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx, nasal septum punctures and hard palate;
  • atrophies muscles (especially the hand muscles);
  • male infertility and provokes an increase in breast cancer;
  • affects the eyes (including blindness), provoked keratitis, iridocyclitis;
  • affects the internal organs;
  • provokes contractures of hands and feet, neuritis and paralysis;
  • resolves limbs soft and hard tissue.

disease

Treatment Until the twentieth century, the disease remains incurable leprosy.Several hundred years she had been treated haulmugrovym oil, which, despite all the "bouquet" of side effects, helped for a while to remove the symptoms of leprosy and slightly slowed its course.

But in the middle of the twentieth century, there was evidence of the first successful use of the drug sulfonic group called "Promin".Since that time, sulfone drugs have been actively implemented and used for the treatment of leprosy.Well-known fact about the incurable disease has lost its relevance, most lepers after several years of treatment become healthy.

At the end of the twentieth century to achieve the desired therapeutic effect of sulfone drugs began to be combined with antibiotics.Thus, to date, the most effective is the combination of the sulfone "dapsone" and antibiotics "Rifimpitsin" and "Clofazimine."

When properly selected treatment regimen, in the event of a timely start of leprosy has the potential to become a healthy person.In advanced cases, the disease can be cured, but its consequences are often left disabled person.

leprosy disease in the modern world

Leprosy disease is ancient, before NEpeople were dying long agonizing death from it.And in the Middle Ages leprosy epidemic that shook Europe and left thousands maimed by itself, by its scale not inferior to plague her devastated cities and piles of corpses.It is no exaggeration to say that leprosy - a terrible disease, leprosy, which, in fact, rot alive, the terror of the healthy people.That time and gave rise to the so-called leprofobii - fear of leprosy.

Fortunately massive medieval epidemic that doomed thousands and millions of people to live as a hermit in painful expectation of death, and the see and feel all the horrible symptoms of leprosy, in the past.In our time, the disease can be cured, in addition, we can say with certainty that for many years people have developed some immunity to the pathogen of leprosy.For this reason, the incidence of leprosy does not acquire mass scale.

In our time, the disease occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions (Africa, Asia, South America), in countries with colder climates leprosy disease is less common.For example, four leprosarium (special hospital for leprosy) operates in Russia, where several hundred leprous treated.Meanwhile, the US official statistics registers every year 100 new cases.According to official statistics, today in the top three "leaders" on the scale of the spread of leprosy, India, Brazil and Burma.

However, thanks to new combinations and regimens of leprosy, the disease is able to completely eliminate in more than 100 countries worldwide.

possible in our time scale epidemic of leprosy?This course of events can not be excluded in the case of genetically mutated pathogen in a way that will develop drug resistance and provoke a lack of an immunological response to it.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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