Polyps of the rectum - symptoms, treatment , surgery


1. Symptoms polyp

rectum 2. Diagnosis and treatment of polyps

One of the most common benign intestinal epithelial formations are colon polyps.This asymptomatic disease, which is able to cause a lot of trouble the human body if it is not timely diagnosed and treated.

colon polyp is formed during proliferation of the glandular epithelium of the intestinal wall into its lumen.Pear-shaped or rounded education usually has a thin stem and broad base.Polyps may be single or multiple.Depending on the characteristics of the structure and shape, distinguish these types of polyps:

  • inflammatory - formed as a result of inflammatory processes taking place in the mucous membranes of the rectum.The area of ​​inflammation is in the process of restructuring the mucous that against the background of various malfunctions of the immune system contributes to a specific "independent" cells, which directly and form the basis of the polyp;
  • hyperplastic - result from excess proliferation of intesti
    nal tissue;
  • neoplastic - education data are the result of non-specific proliferation, atypical cells, and may be either benign or malignant.

in the development of intestinal polyps, the main role is played by such factors are:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • feeding habits (frequent consumption of large amounts of refined foods, lack in the diet of roughage diet, excessive amounts of products of animal origin);
  • tendency to constipation.

Symptoms of colon polyps

specific clinical picture, this pathology has not.All symptomatic manifestations are entirely dependent on the size and location of education.

Symptoms of colon polyps often are not expressed or weakly expressed.These are education in the area of ​​attention Coloproctologists world since the vast majority of bowel cancers develop because of the usual benign and seemingly quite harmless polyp.Timely surgery colon polyps helps prevent cancer.

If education is small, single and only a few millimeters in diameter, it does not manifest itself, and it can be found only by chance, if for some reason it took instrumental examination of the rectum.Symptoms of a rectum polyps usually may arise when the formation is joined to the existing additional inflammatory process, or a large polyp, a few centimeters in diameter, for any reason, ulcerated started breaking through the intestinal wall.

Among the major symptoms emit painful bowel movements with mucus and bleeding, pain in the anus, frequent urge to defecate.Formations located in close proximity to the anus, may fall in the process of defecation.This occurs most often with polyps, which have a long leg.Also, there may be dragging pain in the lumbosacral region or the abdomen and abnormal, unpleasant discharge from the rectum.

Upon detection of Education should immediately begin treatment polyp rectum to prevent the development of complications, such as cracking or the development of inflammatory diseases, abscess or malignancy.

most unfavorable from the point of view of development of malignant tumors, are villous polyps that grow on the mucosal wall, resembling a carpet.The frequency of regeneration of the polyp to cancer is 40%.For this type of polyps is characterized by pronounced disorders of metabolic processes, and anemia may occur.

Education are fairly common, usually in adults, but can occur in childhood.

Diagnosis and treatment of polyps

main diagnostic method is a colonoscopy to identify structures.This examination of the intestinal mucosa by means of special tools - the endoscope, which is inserted into the anus.In developed countries, this procedure once a year decided to spend all people older than 45 years.Inspection procedure takes about 15 minutes and is performed under anesthesia.If there is a genetic predisposition to the disease, the colonoscopy should begin to spend a younger age.

diagnosis of polyps also includes fecal occult blood test, blood test, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy and rectal palpation.

Treatment of rectal polyp only operative.Conservative therapies if the disease does not justify itself and are completely futile.Each polyp, even the smallest, must be removed surgically and carefully studied under a microscope for abnormal cells.Timely removal of structures is the main preventive measure for prevention of cancer of the rectum.

most common methods of surgical removal of the polyps are:

  • transanal excision of education;
  • endoscopic polypectomy with electrocoagulation base of the polyp;
  • removal formation using kolotomii.

Operation rectal polyp with transanal excision is the removal of the polyp with a scalpel.After anesthesia, the anus is expanding with the help of mirrors and rectal doctor scalpel excised education.This procedure is most effective if a polyp is not deep.

more radical method of treatment is surgery colon polyps using endoscopic equipment.The rectum is introduced flexible, equipped with a video camera proctoscope.Special loop electrode polyp grab in the legs or base clamped and cut.For cauterization section applies electrocoagulation.Large Education removed piecemeal.Such treatment colon polyp is completely painless, well tolerated and practically does not injure the intestines.

When diagnosing multiple polyposis performed abdominal surgery with removal of the affected part of the colon.All deleted polyps need to go for histological examination to exclude the malignant transformation of cancer.

A year after the surgery is performed the control endoscopy.

Prevention Education polyps include:

  • mandatory inclusion in the diet of coarse vegetable fiber;
  • replacing animal fats with vegetable;
  • limit consumption of alcoholic and soft drinks.
  • timely detection and treatment of diseases of other organs of the digestive tract;
  • elimination of deficiency of vitamins, particularly beta-carotene.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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