1. polio virus
3. Symptoms and complications of polio
5. Vaccinations against polio
Polio - an acute infectious disease, also known as spinal infantile paralysis and Heine-Medina disease.The disease affects the central nervous system, lymphatic system and gastrointestinal tract.The illness was known in ancient Egypt, and in the middle of the XX century in Europe and North America experienced a real epidemic of polio.Today, outbreaks occur in South Asia and Nigeria.The illness affects children up to 7 years, for this reason, vaccination against polio is included in the national calendar of preventive vaccinations.
causative agent of the disease belongs to a group of enteric viruses and shows enviable stability to environmental effects.In water, it is saved up to 100 days in the stool - up to 6 months.What measures are effective against polio if the virus is not destroyed by freezing, it does not dissolve the digestive juic
virus is transmitted from person to person, and, can be infected and of who carries it is asymptomatic.The virus can be released through the mouth or the stool of the patient and transmitted through dirty hands, food, even airborne.
why personal hygiene measures and raising the standard of living - the best measure of the fight against polio.
Once in the lymphatic system and blood, the virus enters the central nervous system, causing dystrophic and necrotic changes, which outwardly appear such as the characteristic symptoms of polio paresis and paralysis.
Classification There are several classifications of polio.Style disease subdivided into typical forms that evolve with central nervous system and abnormal that occur without it.Typical forms are paralytic (spinal and bulbar) and non-paralytic (meningeal and abortive).Atypical forms are erased and asymptomatic.
Abortive form often leads to epidemics, it is characterized by catarrhal phenomena, gastrointestinal disorders, fatigue, fever.
spinal form of poliomyelitis - the most severe.It causes paralysis of the quadriceps, adductor muscle, the flexor and extensor muscles of the foot, the deltoid, triceps and forearm instep.
meningeal form of polio is a serous meningitis.A bulbar form of striking units of the medulla oblongata.
non-paralytic forms (meningeal and abortive) ends complete recovery.Paralytic form (spinal and bulbar) can lead to long-term or life of the affected muscles.
The incubation period lasts from 5 to 35 days, the symptoms depend on the form of the disease.According to statistics, most often the disease occurs without disturbing motor functions - one paralytic case there are ten non-paralytic.When non-paralytic polio patient's fever, a headache, single vomiting.Swallowing difficulty, the temperature is kept for at least three days, there has been sweating.During the fever there is a weakness in the muscles or muscle tension in the neck and back.A week later, the patient recovers completely.Complications from non-paralytic polio forms are not expressed as a positive for the disease.
Paralytic polio is complicated by severe symptoms - temperature up to 40 ° C, severe headache, frequent vomiting, limb muscles tremble and twitch, there is pain in the legs, back and neck.On the third day, there are cerebral symptoms, and then develop paralysis.Functions of the muscles start to recover in the 2-3 week of disease, remission period actively pursued during the first three months of illness, but then slowed down during the year.There may be severe damage to the muscles, where their function is not restored.Every fourth patient paralytic polio remains disabled for life.
Complications of paralytic polio threaten the patient's life.This may be respiratory paralysis or swallowing muscles, ascending paralysis.Complications of paralytic polio can cause death.
there are other complications in medical practice - not lethal but no less dangerous.These polio complications include pneumonia, lung atelectasis, acute expansion of the stomach, severe gastrointestinal disorders with bleeding, ulcers and perforation.
activities against polio, require mandatory hospitalization.Appointed by bed rest, painkillers and sedatives reception, as well as thermal procedures.When paralysis conducted a comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, and then maintenance treatment in health resort areas.Such complications of polio as a respiratory disorders require urgent measures to restore the patient's breathing and resuscitation.The hearth of the disease shall be disinfected.
Vaccination against polio - now widely recognized measure of prevention.Routine vaccination against polio and DTP (often these vaccines are appointed at the same time), conducted several times when the child reaches the age of seven.The procedure for the introduction of vaccination against polio is quite simple - the vaccine orally buried in the root of the tongue, and then for an hour can not eat or drink.There is another form of the vaccine, which is administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously.
To date, vaccination against polio has both supporters and opponents.Both types of vaccine can cause complications, particularly when the complex is given the vaccine DPT and polio, which gives an additional burden on the immune system of the child.
oral polio vaccination can cause a short diarrhea and allergic reactions.At intramuscular or subcutaneous vaccination can vaktsionassotsiirovanny polio.This complication of vaccination against polio causes all the symptoms of the disease, as if the child was infected in the usual way.To avoid such complications, pediatricians need to examine the state of the immune system of the child and, if necessary, to give away medotvod DPT and polio.To protect your child if complications from the vaccination?Or is it to protect the health of vaccine DPT and polio?Parents should decide on their own.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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