Pneumothorax - causes , types , symptoms, treatment


1. Types disease

2. reasons pneumothorax

3. symptoms

4. Complications

5. First aid for pneumothorax

6. Medical care at a pneumothorax

pneumothorax - a disease that is characterized by the presence of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall due to injury of the chest wall, lung damage bronchial branches.


disease Depending on the connection with the environment is a disease of the following types: closed, the valve open pneumothorax.

Closed pneumothorax is observed in the case of falling into the pleural cavity of a quantity of gas, the growth of which is not observed.This is due to the fact that the communication with the external environment is absent.This type of disease is considered to be the easiest kind of pneumothorax, as there is a possibility that the air in the pleural independently resolve the plane, which will contribute to the expanded light.

Open pneumothorax is characterized by the presence of holes in the chest wall,

which acts as the center of communication with the external environment.In this case, observed in the pleural space is equal to atmospheric pressure level.The self-expansion is not easily observed in open pneumothorax, due to the negative pressure in the pleural cavity.In this disease collapsed lung is excluded from the process of respiration.In this light there is no blood oxygen enrichment in gas exchange.

cause of pneumothorax is a valve-type increase in the amount of air in the pleural cavity.The disease occurs in the case of formation of the valve structure to allow air to pass in one direction only.Air flows only into the pleural cavity, and its withdrawal from it will be blocked.For this type of the disease is characterized by the following triad: the positive pressure in the pleural cavity, a persistent shift of mediastinal organs, acute respiratory failure.The positive pressure which occurs in the pleural cavity, the light output is the cause of the breathing process.

Depending on the degree of decay of light and the amount of air in the pleural cavity may be a full or partial pneumothorax.


pneumothorax pneumothorax Among the reasons that provoke the emergence and development of the disease, identify the following:

  • closed chest injury, which is accompanied by lung damage the fragments of ribs;
  • complications that result from the diagnostic, therapeutic intervention: lung injury when attempting to puncture the pleural, intercostal nerve blockade, subclavian vein catheterization, etc .;
  • open chest injury, which is the result of penetrating trauma;
  • nonspecific pneumothorax: cysts rupture, bulls, Boerhaave syndrome, etc .;
  • spontaneous pneumothorax;
  • tuberculous pneumothorax: breakthroughs cheesy foci cavity gap.


Depending on the degree of decay of light, the mechanism of the disease and the causes of pneumothorax, which cause it formed a certain clinical picture.Acute development of the disease is observed after heavy physical exertion, coughing, accompanied by a sharp stabbing pain in the chest area, which gives the upper limb, neck, upper abdomen and increases with coughing, breathing, moving.Spontaneous pneumothorax is accompanied by rapid breathing, severe shortness of breath, lack of oxygen.The patient has a pale appearance, there is cyanosis of the skin.

In the case of an open pneumothorax, the patient should lie on the side of the injury, it should be tightly pressed against the wound.If you examine the wound, you can hear the noise of the air suction.There may be a release of frothy blood.


Spontaneous pneumothorax in 50% of cases causes complications.Among the complications of the disease distinguish intrapleural bleeding, which are the result of strain of the lung tissue, pleural empyema, seroplastic pnevmoplevrit to form "rigid" light.

Despite the passage of the treatment of pneumothorax, in 15-50% of cases of disease recurrence.

First aid for pneumothorax

If there is any suspicion of spontaneous pneumothorax should immediately call an ambulance.In the case of valve pneumothorax late this assistance may entail death.First aid for an open pneumothorax is to turn the disease into a closed type, by applying an airtight bandage on an open wound of the chest.As an improvised material can act oilcloth, plastic sheeting, thick cotton-gauze bandage.

Medical care at a pneumothorax

physician must examine the patient's chest in the presence of objects, which could cause possible injury.The study assigned chest X-ray.

Treatment of pneumothorax is:

  • immediate hospitalization of the patient in the surgical ward;
  • implementation in suction air from the pleural cavity to the negative pressure reduction therein.

Treatment of pneumothorax gated flows on their own without surgery.Open pneumothorax treated by the disease was translated into a closed type.Treatment pneumothorax valve-type requires surgical intervention.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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