22 May

Pneumoconiosis - symptoms , treatment, prevention

Contents:

1. Causes and types of pneumoconiosis

2. symptoms

3. treatment of pneumoconiosis

4. disease prevention

Pneumoconiosis - chroniclung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of dust production for a long time.

Pneumoconioses occupy one of the first places among the occupational diseases.Most often they are found in the working of the coal, glass, machine-building, the asbestos industry.The disease develops after 5-15 years of work at such enterprises.

Causes and types of pneumoconiosis

development of the disease depends on the composition, the intensity of the inhalation and the concentration of respirable dust of organic or inorganic origin.

There is the following classification of pneumoconiosis, depending on the chemical composition of respirable dust:

  • karbokonioz - is caused by the inhalation of carbonaceous dust (anthracosis, grafitoz, particulate pneumoconiosis);
  • silicosis - caused by the inhalation of dust that contains silica;
  • asbestosis - due to the
    influence of silicates, ie,silicic acid compounds with metals (nefelinoz, talcosis, kalinoz, asbestosis);
  • metallokonioz - is caused by the inhalation of metal dust (iron - siderosis, barium - barinoz, aluminum - aluminosis);
  • pneumoconiosis, caused by the action of a mixed dust (anthracosilicosis, siderosilikoz);
  • pneumoconiosis, which is caused by the inhalation of organic dust - wool, cotton, flax, sugar cane.

depth of penetration of dust and the intensity of its output depends on the dispersion (magnitude) of the aerosol particles.The most active fraction - fine particles, the size of which does not exceed 1-2 mm.They penetrate deep into the airways and are usually deposited on the walls of the alveoli (the end portion of the respiratory system), respiratory passages, terminal bronchioles.Larger particles are trapped and removed bronchi.

Pneumoconiosis is caused by exposure to fine particles in the lungs.In the lungs there is an increase of connective tissue - the primary diffuse fibrosis.Because of these changes on the pathological processes begin to develop bronchiolitis type in the lung tissue (bronchiolar inflammation) endobronchitis (surface bronchitis), emphysema.

symptoms

development of pneumoconiosis is the following species.

Slowly progressive pneumoconiosis develops 10-15 years after the onset of contact with the dust.

rapidly progressing form of the disease manifests itself after 3-5 years from the start of contacts with the dust.Its symptoms increase in the next 2-3 years.

Late pneumoconiosis characterized by the beginning of symptoms is only 2-3 years after cessation of exposure to dust.

retrogressive form of the disease is when after the termination of contacts with the dust, the dust particles are partially derived from the respiratory tract.

Different types of pneumoconiosis have similar symptoms:

  • shortness of breath;
  • stabbing pain in the chest nature, interscapular and subscapularis areas;in the initial stage, they only occur when coughing or deep inspiration, and later - to become permanent;
  • cough with little phlegm;
  • general weakness;
  • excessive sweating;
  • slight increase in body temperature;
  • weight loss;
  • blue lips;
  • deformation of the terminal phalanges of fingers, nails.

In case of further progression of pneumoconiosis can develop diseases such as pulmonary heart (an abnormal increase in the right ventricle of the heart), pulmonary hypertension, respiratory failure.

complication of pneumoconiosis is often chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, asthma, bronchiectasis (abnormal enlargement of the bronchial tubes), scleroderma (connective tissue disease), rheumatoid arthritis, lung cancer.

treatment of pneumoconiosis

In the case of detection of the disease, it is first necessary to stop contact with industrial dust.Pneumoconiosis treatment directed at preventing or slowing the progression of the disease, elimination of symptoms and related diseases, the prevention of complications.

If necessary, for the treatment of pneumoconiosis prescribed antibiotics, expectorants medications (licorice root extract, bromhexine).

To increase the body's resistance used adaptogens - Pantocrinum, tincture Chinese magnolia vine, Eleutherococcus.

In the treatment of pneumoconiosis using physiotherapy.Well-proven therapeutic exercise, circular shower, shower, massage.In the absence of disease complications appoint electrophoresis on the chest, inhalations, ultrasound, oxygen therapy (inhalation of oxygen).

great importance in the treatment of pneumoconiosis has a special diet rich in proteins and vitamins.

In a complicated course of disease in patients prescribed anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative (preventing proliferation of tissue) therapy.With the development of cardiovascular disease in a patient, are used in the treatment of pneumoconiosis bronchodilators (means extending bronchi), cardiac glycosides (preparations of heart muscle), diuretics (diuretics), anticoagulants (agents that reduce blood clotting).

disease prevention

Prevention of pneumoconiosis includes a set of measures necessary to improve technological processes, compliance with safety at work, improve working conditions.

Furthermore, for the prevention of pneumoconiosis need to use protective equipment.These include individual (dust masks, safety goggles, dust clothes) and collective (ventilation and humidifying of industrial premises, local supply and exhaust ventilation) remedies.

Another measure of prevention of pneumoconiosis are preliminary and scheduled medical examinations of workers falling into a risk group.Work related to exposure to dust is contraindicated in those with chronic diseases of bronchial tubes and lungs, allergies, chronic dermatoses, the curvature of the nasal septum, congenital malformations of the respiratory system and heart.

for working in high-risk conditions in order to prevent pneumoconiosis conduct general ultraviolet irradiation, which increases the body's resistance to diseases of the bronchi and lungs.

In addition, it is recommended twice a year to conduct therapeutic and prophylactic courses for people working in the risk group.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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