Peritonitis - types , causes, symptoms, treatments


1. mechanism of disease development

2. Causes

3. symptoms of peritonitis

4. Acute peritonitis

5. Diagnosis and treatmentperitonitis

peritonitis - is inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen.This disease is very dangerous.Without timely treatment the patient on 4-6 day from the beginning of the inflammatory process occurs death.

The article describes the causes and types of peritonitis (viral, acute and infectious peritonitis), symptoms of peritonitis and treatment of this disease.

mechanism of disease

With the development of the inflammatory process destroys the integrity of the membrane surface of the peritoneum cells.Thus, the peritoneum is involved in the pathological process.

If such destruction has occurred in a limited area, say local peritonitis.In the case of a large area of ​​peritoneal lesions in a patient develops a general peritonitis.As a result of pathological processes, dilates blood vessels, and is

involved in the work of a large number of immunoactive cells.Since then, the inflammation develops very quickly.

The peritoneum is full of nerve receptors.They provide a protective reaction of the organism, locally spazmiruya muscles and slowing down the bowels.But at the same time slowing down the intestine leads to the exit through the walls of microorganisms, greatly increasing inflammation.At the same time a plurality of immunoactive cells produce chemically active substances in large quantities.All these processes contribute to the destruction of the peritoneum cells.


Peritonitis is caused by intra-abdominal abscess with pus formation, the stagnation of body fluids, hemorrhage.

There are primary and secondary forms of the disease.Also, the disease is classified depending on the type of pathogen - viral infectious peritonitis and peritonitis.

Viral peritonitis develops during primary infection of the peritoneum organs.When peritonitis viral infection enters the peritoneal cavity through the bloodstream or lymph current, at least on the fallopian tubes.Viral peritonitis occurs only in 1% of patients.

most frequently diagnosed infectious peritonitis.Activators of infectious peritonitis are staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anaerobic bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

reasons that lead to the development of infectious peritonitis, the following:

  • rupture of the appendix or diverticulum (gryzhevidnye protrusion of the intestinal wall);
  • perforation of stomach ulcers, bowel;
  • perforation of the gallbladder, intestines, stomach;
  • acute inflammation of the pelvis;
  • pancreatitis;
  • acute bowel obstruction or a rupture;
  • infectious diseases of the upper genital tract in women;

In addition, infectious peritonitis may be caused by abdominal trauma, surgery in the peritoneum and complications of abortion and childbirth ..

There are non-infectious causes of peritonitis.These include irritants such as bile, blood, foreign substances into the peritoneum (barium).

symptoms of peritonitis

main symptom of peritonitis - a sharp pain at the site of the lesion.It quickly strengthened, gaining even greater intensity when the patient moving or pressing on the wound site.A symptom of peritonitis is often a sign of "imaginary prosperity", in which a person feels a strong pain, which then subsides.The patient calms down and gets into a very dangerous situation.The fact that the abdominal receptors adapt to the development of the inflammatory process.But inflammation develops in the peritoneum on.After about 1-2 hours there is an even stronger pain, indicating the running for infectious peritonitis.

symptoms of peritonitis virus or infectious origin quite numerous:

  • chills and fever;
  • bloating or swelling in the abdomen;
  • difficulty passing flatus, difficulty with defecation;
  • tense muscles of the anterior abdominal wall - one of the main symptoms of peritonitis;
  • nausea, vomiting, after which the relief does not come;
  • difficulty urinating;
  • shortness of breath, heart palpitations;
  • loss of appetite, thirst;
  • diarrhea.

Acute peritonitis

Acute peritonitis - the most dangerous form of the disease, in which the need of urgent medical care.In its absence for a short period of time may lead to death.

Most often this form of the disease develops in acute suppurative appendicitis, perforation of the stomach or duodenal ulcer.

There are three phases in the development of acute peritonitis.

1.Reaktivnaya phase.The duration of this phase is 12 - 24 hours.Peritonitis symptom is acute pain, which covers the entire abdomen.The greatest intensity of the pain is in the area of ​​the primary lesion.The abdomen of the patient is tense.Man lying on his side in a fetal position, with those given to the abdomen legs.The pain is worse at the slightest attempt to change the position.This condition is known as a symptom of Shchetkina-Blumberg.Also in acute peritonitis patient suffering from chills and fever.

2.Toksicheskaya phase of acute peritonitis.Its duration - 12 - 72 hours.It is characterized by the onset of an apparent improvement.In humans, the pain subsides, the tension goes belly appears a state of euphoria or lethargy.Features of the patient face sharpened, there is pallor of the skin.Nausea, vomiting debilitating nature, which does not bring relief.peristalsis, urination is reduced.A person appear the first signs of dehydration - dry mouth.This fluid intake rather difficult because of the lethargy or vomiting.In about 20% of patients die toxic phase of acute peritonitis.

3.Terminalnaya phase.There comes a 24-72 hours of the onset of infectious peritonitis.It lasts no more than a few hours.There are signs of violation of functions of organs and body systems.The patient indifferent to what is happening, is in prostration.Cheeks and eyes sink, there is an earthy shade of skin.Often profuse vomiting putrid masses.The patient appears cold sweat, tachycardia, shortness of breath, body temperature drops sharply.Stomach painful, swollen.Treatment of peritonitis is ineffective at this stage, however, about 90% of the patients die.

Acute peritonitis often leads to death within 24 hours of illness onset.

Diagnosis and treatment of peritonitis

correct diagnosis in the first day of the disease is the key to successful treatment of peritonitis.Diagnosis is based on a review of patient Doctor holding X-ray and ultrasound studies, laboratory blood tests.

Very often the patient's condition does not allow to carry out advanced diagnostics.

only method of treatment of peritonitis acute form - surgery.During surgery, the doctor removes pus from the abdomen, holds a general reorganization of the peritoneum, excised abscesses, solders and sews breaks.Usually, the patient is set to exit the drainage of the newly formed pus.Additionally, in the treatment of peritonitis apply antibiotic therapy, detoxification, immunity support.A few days after the surgery the patient is prescribed peritonitis intestinal stimulation for its revitalization.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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