Pericarditis - types , symptoms , treatment methods


1. symptoms of pericarditis

2. diagnosis of pericarditis

3. Treatment of pericarditis

4. Types of pericarditis

Pericarditis is an inflammation of visceralparietal pericardium and leaflets, characterized by fibrotic changes or accumulation of fluid in its cavity, resulting in impaired heart function.

pericardium function is to maintain the correct orientation of the heart and myocardial protection from strong growths in serious overload.

The disease can cause a variety of bacterial and viral infections, ischemic heart disease, pneumonia, allergic reactions, connective tissue diseases, and autoimmune or neoplastic processes.

Pericardial fluid is plasma ultrafiltrate and in a healthy person the number of its time.And with the development of the disease is enhanced plasma output through the vascular wall into the inflamed tissue of the pericardium.This leads to increase of pressure and formation of adhesions.These processes greatly reduce the efficiency of the heart rate

and can cause heart failure.

symptoms of pericarditis

The disease rarely occurs alone, basically it is a complication of other diseases.Therefore, there is no specific clinical pericarditis, as in the case of more severe symptoms of heart failure appear.

symptoms of pericarditis are:

  • heart attacks;
  • malaise;
  • shortness of breath;
  • pericardial friction;
  • irregular or rapid heartbeat;
  • fever;
  • pain in the chest;
  • dry cough.

Often the symptoms of pericarditis are expressed in varying degrees, depending on the form of the disease: acute (lasting less than 6 weeks) or chronic (lasting more than 2 months).

diagnosis of pericarditis

the purpose of diagnosis of this disease complex examination is used, which consists of:

  • examination of the patient;
  • blood test;
  • echocardiography (echocardiography);
  • electrocardiography (ECG);
  • chest X-ray.

inspection will determine cyanosis (bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes), swelling of the neck veins and leg swelling.Auscultation using a stethoscope gives the possibility to determine the presence of pericardial friction noise.Electrocardiography and echocardiography are also quite informative for detection of the disease.A blood test will reveal markers of inflammation.


pericarditis pericarditis Treatment options depend on the characteristics of the disease and of its gravity.In the case of the acute form of recommended hospitalization, but at a less severe treatment may be performed on an outpatient basis.

pericarditis Treatment includes NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).Ibuprofen specialists often use because it has fewer side effects than the analogues, as well as a positive effect on the coronary blood flow.If the disease is on the background of the development of coronary heart disease, it is recommended to use diclofenac or aspirin.The medicines of the third row in the treatment of pericarditis include indomethacin.

Along with NSAIDs, it is desirable to use drugs that protect the mucous membrane of the digestive tract that help avoid stomach ulcers.

Within 14 days you can evaluate the correctness of the chosen regimen.If it is chosen correctly, the treatment of pericarditis is continued until the absolute disappearance of symptoms and an additional 7 days, reducing the dose of the last two days to complete the cancellation.If the selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was not effective, it is necessary to replace it with another drug group.

avoid relapse after recovery the patient should necessarily be under the control of the attending physician.

Types of pericarditis

There are such kinds of diseases like:

  • acute pericarditis;
  • dry pericarditis;
  • exudative or pericardial effusion;
  • constrictive pericarditis.

Acute pericarditis develops as a result of infections, acute myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, allergic reactions, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clinical manifestations and etiological factors of the disease are highly variable, so it is difficult to diagnose.The initial stages of diagnosis of acute pericarditis suggest blood tests, chest X-ray and echocardiography.Acute pericarditis is especially important to prevent compression of the myocardium with blood or exudate, which slowly accumulates in the pericardial cavity.

Treatment of acute pericarditis spend NSAIDs and antibiotics, and for the prevention of side effects of steroids use.In order to eliminate the complications of the disease are also used diuretics, as shown in atrial fibrillation antiarrhythmic drugs.

pericardial effusion is caused by an infectious or allergic inflammation and often complicates the course of tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, streptococcal or staphylococcal infections.He even has a name exudative pericarditis and its characteristic feature is the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity or other body fluids (blood, pus, transudate).Over time, this causes a stretching of the outer pericardium.As a result of exudative pericarditis occurs with the formation of the organization effusion pericardial adhesions, resulting in increased pressure inside the pericardium and disturbed hemodynamics.

flow exudative pericarditis depends on the severity of infection, the volume and amount of pericardial fluid.In this form of the disease may be bouts of weakness, cyanosis, relaxation pulse, loss of consciousness.

main treatment for pericarditis effusion pericardial fluid is evacuated by a puncture.

constrictive compressive or form of the disease usually develops as a result of exudative pericarditis, but can sometimes occur as an independent disease.It is characterized by thickening of the pericardium and the violation of its ability to stretch during the heart.Over time, the sealed pericardium occurs leaving calcium salts and the gradual fusion of the outer shell with the heart.In this form of the disease, a so-called phenomenon of "stone heart", due to the postponement of a large amount of calcium in the pericardium.

Causes of constrictive pericarditis are diseases of the blood and kidneys, rheumatism, tuberculosis, injuries of the chest and heart, as well as other infections.

Diagnosis of the disease is difficult, because of pericarditis symptoms resemble symptoms of congestive heart failure.

On examination, the patient is determined by the swelling of the face, hands, ears, and cyanosis.Key features of constrictive pericarditis is an increased venous pressure and constant tachycardia.The disease is not treated conservatively, but only by surgery.

Dry (fibrous) pericarditis is a disease in which due to violations of vascular permeability in the pericardial cavity propotevaet fibrinogen and fibrin is deposited in the form.

main clinical symptoms of pericarditis are:

  • pericardial friction;
  • changes on electrocardiography;
  • sharp pain in the chest.

With timely treatment to the expert and proper treatment, the prognosis for most patients is favorable.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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