21 May

Fractures - types , treatment, rehabilitation

Contents:

1. Types of bone fractures

2. Symptoms fractures

3. Treatment of fractures

4. main methods of rehabilitation

5. Fracturesbones in children

bone fractures referred to the violation of their integrity.The cause of the fracture may be the impact of an external force (impact or load) or some diseases that decrease bone strength and make them brittle.The severity of fracture depends on the location, size and type.

Types of bone fractures

Depending on the cause of distinguish traumatic and pathological fractures.The cause of traumatic bone fractures is a sharp, sudden action of mechanical impact force to the bone.Pathologic fractures occur under the influence of a particular pathological process in the bone.This may be the result of a cyst or cancer.This bone structure is gradually degraded, and even small loads can lead to fracture.

Also, distinguish open and closed fractures.With an open fracture in addition to destruction of the bone at the site of injury the skin

is damaged and all structures located underneath (muscle fibers, nerves, ligaments, blood vessels).Closed fracture of the bone is not accompanied by damage to the external coverings.

fractures can be complete and incomplete.Incomplete fractures occur in the form of fracture, fissures, perforated bone effect.Complete fracture occurs when a bone fracture into two parts.In such cases it is often offset bone fracture, in which the displaced bone fragments.

Symptoms fractures

With multiple fractures, especially in the presence of open fractures, the victim develops a serious condition, sometimes leading to traumatic shock.When traumatic shock the victim falling blood pressure, pulse becomes weak, rapid breathing and heartbeat quickens.

fracture Province marked swelling and bruising often.The man disturbed the function of the damaged limb, all the movements are limited and painful.A characteristic feature is the fracture strain, shortening and abnormal mobility at the fracture site.In the case of intra-articular fracture is bleeding in the joint (hemarthrosis).When complete fractures with displacement observed extensive bleeding in the surrounding tissue, there is a strong swelling, decreased skin sensitivity.

Treatment of bone fractures

main objective of the treatment of bone fractures - fusion of bone fragments and restoration of normal limb function.The doctor must match the bone fragments and provide them with a secure fit.It is necessary to enable movement in the neighboring joints and normal functioning of the surrounding muscles.

Artificial restoration of the displaced bone fragments (repositioning) is open or closed.Open reduction is surgical section in conjunction fracture and subsequent bone fragments by means of special locking devices.If closed reduction displacement of bone fragments eliminated using various manual handling and special machines.Furthermore, in such cases often used skeletal traction system.Closed reduction is often used in the treatment of closed fractures.

treatment of bone fractures can be conservative and surgical.Conservative therapy consists of closed reduction, the subsequent imposition of plaster casts, orthoses (external orthopedic appliances).At impossibility of closed reduction, retention of bone fragments in position to carry out surgical intervention.The indication for surgery is the fact that a patient in a particular state is easier to move the surgery than conservative.

with open fractures of the bones with displacement or without it carried out the primary surgical treatment of wounds.Its purpose is to prevent infection of the fracture site.

main methods of rehabilitation

After the treatment the patient is carried out rehabilitation of bone fractures.It is based on the therapeutic exercise, massage, physical therapy techniques.For each patient, make an individual complex of medical gymnastics.It aims to stimulate the metabolic processes in the body, preventing muscle wasting, contractures (restriction of movements in the joints), normalization of mental and emotional state of the patient.

special place in the rehabilitation of fracture of bones takes a special massage.Through massage developed muscles damaged limbs, improves the overall tone of the human body.

well proven in the rehabilitation of bone fractures physiotherapy techniques.The most commonly prescribed to patients ultrasound, UHF, electrical muscle stimulation, ultraviolet irradiation, or phonophoresis electrophoresis with drugs.After the fusion of bones efficient use of iodine-bromine, radon, sodium chloride, conifer-salt bath.

Fractures in children

Children fractures are the most common hands, especially the elbow and forearm.

for children characterized by fractures in which there is a slight displacement of the bone fragments.In this broken bone on one side to the other holding bone fragments thick periosteum.

fracture line often passes through the zone of growth of bone tissue, which is located near the joints.Damage to this area at the turn of the growth of bones in children sometimes leads her to a premature close.As a result, in the future, the child can form bending or shortening of the affected limb.

main signs of bone fractures in children are swelling, swelling, severe deformation of the limb.In place of the fracture on the skin often develops a bruise.

Thanks to accelerate the process of callus formation (spayanie bone fragments), a good blood supply to the bone tissue in children grow together much more quickly than adults.The younger the age of the child, the sooner he comes the fusion of the bones.

Infants fractures are sometimes not diagnosed because of the more pronounced subcutaneous fat, which greatly complicates the palpation.In such cases, the main manifestations of the fracture are swelling and tenderness at the site of injury, often accompanied by fever.To clarify the diagnosis should be carried out X-ray of the area.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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