Fracture of skull base - symptoms, treatment , consequences


1. symptoms of basilar skull fracture

2. Diagnostics

3. fracture treatment of skull base

4. consequences of skull base fracture

fracture of the skull base refers to the serious injury of the brain and can cause damage to the basal parts of the brain, cranial nerve trunk.severe inflammatory intracranial complications may develop as a result of such an injury.Occur fracture of the skull base may be a fall from a height, while automobile accidents, bumps on the face, and so on. Often these injuries are accompanied by a gust of dura, thereby forming a message with the external environment through the oral or nasal cavity, the eye socket, sinuses or cavitymiddle ear.This results in a nasal, ear and liquorrhea onset posttraumatic pneumocephalus.The consequence of posts with the environment often becomes pathogen penetration and infection of the internal cranial contents.

If the injury has affected the bones of the anterior cranial fossa, the bleeding comes under the conjuncti

va and periorbital tissue, bleeding from the nose, on the expiry of the cerebrospinal fluid nasal passages.When the deformation of the plate of the ethmoid bone and the formation of subcutaneous emphysema, it is due to air leakage into the subcutaneous tissue, it can also talk about the destruction of the cells of the ethmoid bone.

When injuries occur diencephalic brain disorders of the visual, olfactory, or oculomotor nerve.

symptoms of basilar skull fracture

Fractures of the skull base are ranked as number of open head injuries, and if such a fracture occurs outflow of blood or cerebrospinal fluid from the nose or ear canal, then talk about penetrating traumatic brain injuries.These fractures are divided into localization:

  • fracture of the anterior cranial fossa;
  • fracture of the middle cranial fossa;
  • fracture of the posterior fossa.

symptoms of a fracture of the skull base in the area of ​​the anterior cranial fossa is bleeding from the nose, bruising of the eyelids, nasal liquorrhea.Bruising act only on the second day after injury, and can be observed subcutaneous emphysema, which is formed in the presence of cracks.

also symptoms of basilar skull fracture in the area of ​​the anterior cranial fossa are bruised in the mastoid area, simultaneous hearing loss, facial and abducens.Most often ascertain longitudinal fractures of the area, walking in the direction of the foramen magnum, and the group is deformed caudal cranial nerves and formed bulbar symptoms, supplemented by a disorder of functions of vital organs.

symptoms of a fracture of the skull base in the area of ​​the middle cranial fossa is bleeding from the ear, eardrum, liquorrhea, hearing loss, bruising in the area of ​​the temporal muscle and the mastoid process.Skull Injuries in half of cases lead to damage to the bones of the middle cranial fossa.These fractures are divided into oblique, transverse and longitudinal.

Quite often in traumatic brain injuries occur fractures of the pyramid of the temporal bone of the longitudinal, transverse, diagonal type, depending on the topography of the fissures.Almost 75% of fractures account for longitudinal cracks arising from the deformation of the side of the skull.This results in damage to the middle ear, in rare cases, the injured facial nerve canal or inner ear.

When bumps in the occipital region of the skull come transverse fracture of the temporal bone pyramid, in which deforms the inner ear, the inner ear canal and the canal of the facial nerve.When such injuries can occur complete deafness, peripheral facial nerve palsy, a disorder of the vestibular function, loss of sense of taste 2/3 language, this is due to damage to the tympani.

Diagnosis Diagnosis is carried out, examining the presence of visual effects basilar skull fracture.If the call for medical help was late, then there may be symptoms of acute meningitis, but if also clearly visible consequences such as a fracture of the skull base symptom score, liquorrhea etc., it is diagnosed -. Bone fracture of the skull base.

treatment of skull base fracture

primarily conducted following treatment: tamponade ears and nose.When bleeding into the nasopharynx spend intubation.Next, apply a common method of treatment of head injuries.If the call for medical assistance was delayed, it requires special treatment of basilar skull fracture - in order to prevent infection of intracranial contents use broad-spectrum antibiotics.

First aid for fractures of bones of the skull base is depending on the severity of the victim's condition.

If a person after injuries is unconscious, the first aid is carried out according to the following plan:

  • if the victim continues to breathe on their own, it must be put to one side;
  • wrapped him in warm clothes or a blanket;
  • constantly affected check pulse and breathing;
  • if there is a violation of the respiratory activity of the victim or a full stop breathing, you should immediately perform artificial respiration;
  • immediately call an ambulance and medical care continue to monitor the status of the victim, waiting for the arrival of medical personnel.

If a person after injuries is conscious, the first aid is carried out according to the following plan:

  • inverted position of the victim in the side, the head is placed under the cushion of clothing or a pillow and head support;
  • if a person says the panic and shock, it is necessary to try to calm him down and prevent sudden movements of the victim, and it should not be allowed to get up or sit down;
  • monitor the functioning of the vital functions of the body;
  • to prevent hypothermia - to hide the victim with a blanket;
  • call an ambulance.

should be remembered that the correct treatment of fractures of the skull base does not provide for the imposition of bandages on his nose and ears, and should not immediately put tampons in the nose and ears of the victim.If there is bleeding from the ears or nose, blood must freely bleed (given that there is not much pressure the blood stream), to avoid increased intracranial pressure.Later in the treatment of fractures of the skull base produce plugging his ears and nose.

consequences of skull base fracture

possible consequences of such fractures of the skull base:

  • complete paralysis.Since the base of the skull is the link between the spinal cord and brain and central nervous system injury affects his motor functions.Complete paralysis or failure of all motor reflexes occurs when damage to the brain or spinal cord nerve fibers and nerve endings.
  • curvature of the spine - less sad, but also very serious consequence of injuries of the skull base.This is due to the fact that because the spine becomes unstable trauma "attached" to the base of the skull, because of this change occurs spine bends and movements of the line.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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