Parkinsonism - types , symptoms , treatments


1. Causes of Parkinson

2. symptoms

3. Treatment of Parkinson

Parkinsonism - chronic progressive disease of the brain, which is basedIt is a neurological syndrome - Parkinson's syndrome.

parkinsonian syndrome is involuntary limb tremor, muscular rigidity (stiffness), poor coordination of movements and speech.This syndrome occurs in many neurological diseases.

Causes of Parkinson

Depending on the cause of the disease can be primary (idiopathic) and secondary parkinsonism.

most common primary form of the disease - Parkinson's disease.

primary reason for the development of parkinsonism is the destruction or damage of neurons (nerve cells), which are in black brain substance.One function of the neurons is to produce dopamine, that is responsible for the transmission of pulses, providing the movement of a person.With the development of the disease dopamine production is reduced, with the stability of the transmission of nerve impulses, resulting in Parkinson's symptoms ap


With age, all people have reduced production of dopamine, but those who suffer from this disease, losing most of the neurons.The exact cause of the destruction, neuron damage is not yet established.

Secondary parkinsonism is triggered by many causes.It can develop as a result of taking certain medications, traumatic brain injury, infectious diseases, tumor processes.

There vascular parkinsonism, which is common in acute stroke.It develops as a result of atherosclerotic lesion of vessels of the brain, and is usually accompanied by hypertension.Vascular parkinsonism ill people who have symptoms of chronic insufficiency of cerebral circulation.


first symptoms of Parkinson's disease are mild.The patient feels light common symptoms - fatigue, depression, insomnia.Then they begin to show signs of the disease.

1.Tremor.Tremor usually starts with a slight shake-hand or individual fingers.Maybe tremor feet.This sign of disease may be associated with other symptoms - impaired motor coordination, sensitivity.Tremor is enhanced when the patient is in a state of nervous tension, stress.Constant shaking limbs disappears only during human sleep.Many patients expressed little tremor.

2.Bradikineziya (movement impairing).This symptom of Parkinson's disease is manifested in the awkwardness and slowness of movement, impaired coordination.As a result, rigidity (stiffness) of the leg muscles in a patient impaired gait.Sometimes rigidity gives great discomfort - causing pain, constrains movement, making difficult to achieve simple actions.

3.Problemy balance.Severe form of the disease characterized by an inability of the patient to maintain balance.While in the early years of the disease, this problem does not cause particular discomfort.

4.Poterya automatism movements.Symptomatic parkinsonism is the inability of the patient to perform automatic actions - to smile, blink, wave their arms when walking.In some patients, the face fixed unblinking eyes, and an expression of intense scrutiny.Sometimes a person loses the ability not only to facial expressions, and gestures to.

5.Narusheniya speech.human voice becomes unintelligible, quiet, monotonous.It does not present tone modulation.

6.Narusheniya salivation and swallowing.Typically, this feature appears in parkinsonian syndrome severe stage of the disease.But, almost always, the patient can swallow food.

7.Slaboumie.The symptom of Parkinson's disease, which can occur at a late stage of the disease.But the inability to understand, to think and to remember the inherent very small number of patients.

main feature of vascular parkinsonism is a violation of the walk and the rapid progression of the disease.

Treatment of Parkinson

therapy of this disease is not standard schemes.Every case of disease requires an individual approach.In the secondary form of the disease is first treated with the underlying disease.Thus, vascular Parkinsonism therapy involves surgery.During bypass surgery is performed which corrects the cerebral circulation.

in the treatment of Parkinson's disease using medications that have a positive effect on different neural mediators - substances that carry out the transfer of nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another.These medicines include some antidepressants, neuroleptics, anticholinergics.

Drug therapy can lead to a complete cure of the disease.It is only able to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's syndrome, slow down its development.Therefore, treatment of Parkinson's disease continues throughout the life of the patient.

addition to drug therapy for people suffering from this disease, appoint a special massage, physiotherapy exercises.It is important that patients do not stop doing physical activity feasible for them.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy using brain neurostimulation.The patient's chest area under the skin implanted neurostimulator, which connect the electrodes to the brain.

in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, severe cardinal used brain stimulation using a magnetic field.In addition, sometimes use electroconvulsive therapy.A new direction in the treatment of the disease the patient is a transplant of fetal tissue and stem cells.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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