20 May

Retinal detachment - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment

Contents:

1. reasons

2. symptoms of retinal detachment

3. Types detachment

4. diagnosis of retinal detachment

5. Prevention

6. Treatment of retinal detachment

retina - is the inner membranes of the eyes, which is a peripheral system of the visual analyzer.It is thanks to the retina and contained therein photoreceptor cells provide the perception and transformation of all the seen the man.One of the most serious diseases of the eyeball is considered to be retinal detachment, which is its separation from vascular network.As a result, the patient is sharply reduced vision, there is a feeling in the eyes of the shroud.Left untreated it can lead to total retinal detachment, cataracts and blindness.

reasons

This eye disease can trigger two groups of factors:

1. Spontaneous - a head injury, face or eyes, fall, defects in development, infectious inflammation.The reason for detachment may be sports such as diving and boxing.

2. Legitimate caused by pathological changes in the

body:

  • diabetes, in which the retinal tissues do not get enough nutrients, which leads to the gradual degeneration and death of cells;
  • hypertensive disease;
  • severe myopia.

symptoms of retinal detachment to detachment

characterized by rapid worsening of symptoms, the patient notices that every day of his vision in the affected eye drops.

The main symptoms of retinal detachment include:

  • appearance before the eyes gray small spots of different shapes;
  • appearance of the veil, the misty shade of sight;
  • morning improved vision, which worsens during the day, in the evening the patient becomes almost can not see anything;
  • flash light, lightning, flickering spots;
  • the presence of pain in his eyes only at the initial stage of detachment.

Types detachment

Doctors distinguish different types of retinal detachment:

1. Depending on the damage:

  • primary - if any liquid gets in the retinal break;
  • secondary - when the retinal break apart the liquid has a tumor infiltration, hemorrhage.

2. In terms of mobility:

  • mobile;
  • rigid (immovable).

3. By the number of accumulated fluid:

  • convex or high when a bubble was formed;
  • flat when in the folds of the retina.

4. As the prevalence:

  • total retinal detachment, the retina when peeled around the perimeter;
  • subtotal - captures three quadrants;
  • common - captures two quadrants;
  • local - captures one quadrant.

diagnosis of retinal detachment

Before therapy is obligatory to conduct a number of studies.Diagnosis of retinal detachment include:

  • check visual acuity to assess the condition of the central area of ​​the retina;
  • tonometry - measurement of intraocular pressure, which, if detachment is usually lower than normal;
  • perimetry - research side view for analysis of the retina and its periphery;
  • special electrophysiological study, which allows to determine the quality of the optic nerve and the viability of nerve cells;
  • ophthalmoscopy - fundus examination to determine the exact locations of retinal breaks, their number, to identify thinning hazardous areas;
  • study using ultrasound to assess the state of the vitreous and retina installation exfoliated sizes, especially when it is necessary to clouding of the lens or cornea.

Prevention

In some cases, it turns out to prevent retinal detachment.For people diagnosed with myopia or retinal dystrophy are advised to regularly visit an ophthalmologist, which if necessary will appoint relevant research or treatment.For the prevention of disease applied laser coagulation of the retina or cryopexy - therapy by low temperatures.When major changes in the vitreous often carried out an operation on his replacement.

To prevent injuries of the skull, face and eyes, which often is the cause of detachment, especially in young men, it is necessary to observe simple precautions during sports, at work and at home.

Treatment of retinal detachment

retinal detachment can not cure medicines.The only way to restore vision to the patient and keep the affected eye - is holding an emergency surgery for retinal detachment.It should be understood that the longer the detachment, the greater the number of nerve cells, rods and cones are killed, and therefore more difficult to restore visual function.

The goal of surgical treatment of retinal detachment is to detect and eliminate the gap.For this purpose, around the affected area caused by scarring, which leads to the restoration of tissue integrity.To improve the sealing of the eyeball shell suturing bring together a special silicone seal in the form of a cord, retinal detachment approximating to the choroid.

The surgeon selects a particular method of surgery for retinal detachment, depending on its type:

  • local filling, if the retina is not completely peeled off;
  • circular sealing if the retina is completely peeled off;
  • vitrectomy when changed vitreous is replaced with saline or silicone liquid;
  • laser coagulation to limit the affected area.

treatment can be carried out in one or more stages.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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