Pulmonary edema - Causes, Symptoms , treatment , first aid


1. Causes of pulmonary edema

2. Symptoms

3. Treatment of pulmonary edema

Human lungs are composed of a plurality of alveoli, braided network of capillaries.This is where gas exchange occurs, which is necessary for normal body function, as well as human life.If, instead of air in the liquid enters the alveoli, pulmonary edema develops.Accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs can lead to serious consequences, including death.

Causes of pulmonary edema

There are two types of pulmonary edema cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic.The first is directly linked to health problems such as heart failure.The second can be caused by a variety of other reasons not related to the improper functioning of the heart.

fluid in the lung alveoli may fall as a result of a brain injury, lung injury, the presence of severe pulmonary infection in the body, poisoning potent toxins eclampsia in pregnant women, heroin or cocaine, quickly raising to a height of more than three kilometers.Also,

pulmonary edema may result in a violation of the kidneys.

In patients with heart failure, the cause of edema may even become a nightmare.

Symptoms The symptoms of lung edema usually appear suddenly, in most cases at night (due to the lying position the person):

  • painful attacks of suffocation, worse in the supine position;
  • dyspnea unrelated to physical activity;
  • pressing pain in the chest;
  • sudden shortness of breath;
  • palpitations;
  • cough, then cough with frothy sputum pinkish hue and pronounced wheezing;
  • gray-bluish complexion, and then other parts of the body;
  • pale skin and cold clammy sweat;
  • swelling of veins in the neck;
  • high blood pressure;
  • patient confusion, perhaps - unconsciousness;
  • weak, thready pulse.

Treatment of pulmonary edema

When the first signs of pulmonary edema symptoms should immediately call an ambulance.As the patient's condition is quite critical, first aid is on the way to hospital.The patient is placed in a semi-sitting position, apply the mask with oxygen, in severe cases, a mechanical ventilation.On the upper part of the thigh of the patient venous applied tourniquets and gradually weakening, remove them within 20 minutes.

Such action is necessary to reduce the flow to the right heart and to prevent further release of pressure in the pulmonary circulation.Also, under the tongue the patient put a nitroglycerin tablet, and to eliminate discomfort, administered opioids.All these measures give the necessary time to determine the cause of pulmonary edema and the best treatment strategy.

first aid at pulmonary edema could and should have even before the ambulance.First of all the patient should have access to fresh air.To do this, unfasten the collar on it, remove the straps constricting clothing, and open all the windows.

In the ICU patient is under constant and close supervision of doctors who carefully monitor the hemodynamic and breathing.Scheme treatment of pulmonary edema is made depending on the degree of severity of edema, its causes and its comorbidities.For example, if the swelling has occurred as a result of heart failure, the prescribers to resolve it.If, after the full course of the treatment of heart problems swelling continues to progress, the patient is still appointed and diuretics.

To date, pulmonary edema is a fatal complication of many diseases, so if you have a shortness of breath not related to physical activity, be sure to call the ambulance.Do not take any independent action to get rid of this symptom.If emergency care in pulmonary edema will be provided on time, the outcome is likely to be favorable.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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