Acute renal failure - symptoms, treatment


1. The causes of the disease

2. symptoms

3. Treatment of acute renal failure

4. Complications of acute renal failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) - a syndrome of sudden, abrupt discontinuation or reduction of kidney function (or a single kidney), arising due to the reduced blood flow to the kidneys, and a sharp decline in the delivery of oxygen to them.This condition is characterized by violation of general metabolism, as well as a sharp and steady increase in the body nitrogen metabolism products, in particular, increased levels of urea and creatinine.

condition of acute renal failure is always a complication that arose due to other pathological processes.About 60% of cases of acute renal failure associated with trauma or surgery, nearly 40% of patients at the time of acute renal failure are treated in hospitals.Still 1 - 2% of cases occur in women in the early or late stages of pregnancy.

The causes of the disease

The following causes of acute renal failure:

1.Travmatichesky shock and reflex with massive tissue damage leading to loss of blood and, consequently, to a decrease in circulating blood volume (heavy operation, accidents, injuries,burns, frostbite, myocardial infarction, abortion, transfusion of incompatible blood, liver damage and decay of tissue and pancreas).

2.Tyazhelo occurring infectious diseases, which may be accompanied by dehydration, bacterial shock (cholera, dysentery, hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis).

3.Intoksikatsiya medications (analgesics, antibiotics, sulfonamides), nephrotropic poisons (arsenic, mercury, mushrooms, snake poison, insect bites), exposure to ionizing radiation, heavy metal salts, drug addiction, substance abuse, alcoholism.

4.Ostry pyelonephritis (inflammation of the renal pelvis) and acute glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the glomeruli).

5.Neprohodimost urinary tract caused by stones, tumors, trauma, ureter, squeezing, embolism and thrombosis of renal arteries.

The causes of acute renal failure in children are often shock and collapse occurred due to toxic and infectious diseases, acute infections with sepsis or collapse, acute hemolysis, hemorrhagic fever, anaphylactic reactions, acute pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis, transfusion of incompatible blood.


Symptoms of acute renal failure developed against the background of signs of the disease, which led to its development.Along with symptoms of shock, poisoning or disease begins to manifest diuresis (reduced urine output).First, the patient is oliguria (decreased urine output up to 400 ml per day), followed by anuria (decreased urine output up to 50 ml per day).

also ARF symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, lethargy, drowsiness, dryness and blanching of the skin, edema, tachycardia, rapid breathing, increased blood pressure.You may experience hallucinations and seizures, as well as bloating and diarrhea.Acute renal failure in children is usually manifested in the form of the same symptoms as adults.

development of acute renal insufficiency occurs for a time from several hours to one - seven days.With timely treatment for medical and correctly spent treatment of renal function can be completely restored.As a general rule, to completely eliminate the effects of acute renal failure in the treatment takes six months to two years.

Treatment of acute renal failure

Treatment of acute renal failure and elimination of the factors that led to its development (anti-shock action, filling blood loss, toxins, hemodialysis), should be held as soon as possible.The patient must be immediately hospitalized in the intensive care unit or department of nephrology and dialysis.

At the first stage of the treatment of acute renal failure are eliminated all the reasons for the decline of kidney health.Then, steps are being taken to eliminate the urine output and stabilize the volume of urine.Further treatment usually is based on the conservative therapy, which includes:

  • Reduction entering the body of water, electrolytes and nitrogen so that their number corresponds to the output indicators.
  • changing nature of drug therapy.
  • Ensuring patient special food.
  • Daily monitoring of the clinical condition of the patient and biochemical parameters, which allows to monitor the vital signs and the balance between body weight and fluid.

Subsequently, dialysis therapy is conducted, if necessary.Dialysis necessarily indicated for symptomatic uremia, severe atsedemii, refractory hyperkalemia development and accumulation of excessive amounts of fluid in the body.

Treatment of acute renal failure in children also requires treatment of the underlying diseases, diuresis stimulation, prescriptions for improving renal blood flow, hemodialysis, and in the absence of indications to it - the application of conservative therapy.

In acute special low-protein diet in which the protein content in the daily diet of the patient is less than 20 g, and the main diet consists of carbohydrates and fats (porridge on water, bread, yogurt, honey, butter) renal failure for children and adults is assigned.If food intake is impossible or difficult, nutrient mixture and glucose are administered intravenously.

Complications of acute renal failure

Among the complications that may arise in the ARF include hypertension, circulatory failure, pericarditis, and arrhythmias, gastrointestinal disorders work (nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, bowel obstruction).It is also possible neurological disorders (they are more characteristic of elderly patients): sleepiness, lethargy, dizziness, agitation, muscle twitching, convulsions and seizures.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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