Osteomyelitis of the jaw - causes , types , symptoms, treatment


1. Causes and types of osteomyelitis jaw

2. symptoms

3. osteomyelitis of the mandible

4. treatment of disease

Osteomyelitisjaw - inflammatory disease of bone and bone marrow.Usually develops as a result of infection in bone.Osteomyelitis of the jaw is considered one of the most dangerous diseases.The disease affects all elements of bone, promotes inflammatory and infectious processes, has many serious complications.Often, the result of generalization occurs osteomyelitis of the jaw - a condition in which, except for a certain part of the bone is affected entire skeletal system of the human body as a whole.

Causes and types of osteomyelitis jaw

Depending on the source of infection, the following types of osteomyelitis of the jaw.

Odontogenic osteomyelitis.This is quite a serious disease, the cause of which is running caries.This type of disease is about 75% of all cases of osteomyelitis of the jaw.Infection of the cavity of the affected tooth penetrates first in the

pulp (connective tissue that fills the cavity of the tooth).Then, after passing a tooth root gets into the bone tissue.With this type of disease osteomyelitis mandible occupies about 70% of cases.Odontogenic cause osteomyelitis are three groups of microorganisms - staphylococci, streptococci, anaerobic bacteria some species.Microorganisms penetrate into the bone tissue by bone tubules or lymphatic vessels.

Hematogenous osteomyelitis of the jaw.It appears as a result of infection of bone infection that is transferred to the blood stream from the primary center of inflammation.Typically, the source of infection are the centers of a chronic infection, for example, chronic inflammation of the tonsils.Also trigger disease onset may be acute infections - typhoid, diphtheria, scarlet fever, flu.When a hematogenous osteomyelitis of the jaw bone initially affected area of ​​the body.Only after that in the inflammatory process may involve teeth.Hematogenous osteomyelitis does not occur very often.

traumatic osteomyelitis of the jaw.There is a fracture or injury as a result of infection in the wound.This type of osteomyelitis is quite rare.


Depending on the disease osteomyelitis of the jaw is an acute, subacute and chronic.Each form is characterized by symptoms inherent in it.

acute form of osteomyelitis of the jaw.A distinctive feature is a pronounced reaction to the infection.In patients experiencing headache, malaise, poor sleep, fatigue.Usually the body temperature is raised to 38 ° C, but sometimes higher.If symptoms of an acute process, the body temperature does not increase, this means that the patient's immune system is weakened.This situation requires a different approach to treatment.In acute odontogenic osteomyelitis of the jaw first symptom - pain in the infected tooth.When tapping on the aching tooth, the patient experiences severe pain.There is mobility of an infected tooth and the neighboring teeth.The mucosa near tooth patient red, friable, edematous.

In acute osteomyelitis of the jaw has the following signs of intoxication:

  • decrease in jaw mobility;
  • enlargement and tenderness of the lymph nodes;
  • total patient lethargy;
  • sharpen facial features, grayish skin color;
  • sometimes jaundice of the sclera eyes;
  • increase or decrease in blood pressure.

subacute osteomyelitis of the jaw.Most often, this is the next stage of the acute form of the disease.The patient's condition is improving as a result of the breakthrough of pus from the bone.There is a restriction of the area of ​​the melting of bone tissue, with the formation of a characteristic pattern of necrotic bone area (sequestration).Inflammation does not disappear, but only "lubricated".The destruction of the bone tissue continues.

Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw.It can occur for a long time, up to several months.Against the background of the external improvement occurs aggravation of the disease, a new fistula is rejected necrosis area of ​​bone.Cures occurs rarely.

osteomyelitis of the mandible

osteomyelitis of the mandible occurs much more often than the upper.Its causes may be dental disease, hematogenous drift of infection, infection after trauma or injury.

In this disease there is often a diffuse lesion of the jaw.In most cases, the inflammatory process is complicated by phlegmon (diffuse acute purulent inflammation) and abscess (purulent inflammation of tissue) admaxillary soft tissue.As a result, the patient is difficult to swallow, breathe, open your mouth.Often in osteomyelitis of the mandible inflammatory process affects the mandibular canal.This contributes to the inferior alveolar nerve is compressed, feelings of numbness in the lower lip on the affected side.

At the beginning of the disease there is a strong throbbing pain, swelling and redness of the gums.The patient can not open his mouth, his teeth on the affected side become loose.Then opened ulcer in the oral cavity or outwardly.The jaw bone is formed lifeless land, which supports inflammation.Significantly increased body temperature, it is deteriorating general condition of the person.Osteomyelitis of the jaw of this type may acquire chronic course with exacerbations.Sometimes the results are scar reduction jaws, jaw deformity, joint ankylosis (complete immobility of joints), loss of some teeth.

treatment of disease

choice of methods of treatment of osteomyelitis of the jaw depends on the stage of the disease.

In the acute stage of the disease are pursuing a comprehensive therapy in the hospital.Initially used surgical intervention consisting in the primary treatment of purulent lesions in the bone, the periosteum, the surrounding soft tissues.After that, for the treatment of osteomyelitis of the mandible is performed anti-inflammatory, detoxifying, fortifying, stimulating therapy.The nature and extent of surgical treatment, the choice of an integrated medical treatment, physiotherapy determined by the peculiarities of the disease, local symptoms and general condition of the body.

In the complex treatment of osteomyelitis of the jaw include the use of adaptogens, vitamins.For obschestimuliruyuschego steps to successfully apply the general silica exposure patient.

In the subacute stage carried tonic, immunostimulant treatment, physiotherapy.

timely, competent treatment of osteomyelitis of the jaw facilitates complete recovery of the patient.Moreover, it can prevent the occurrence of severe complications.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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