Oligophrenia - extent , forms, causes , treatment


1. Causes of mental retardation in children

2. Degrees disease

3. Forms oligophrenia

Oligophrenia or dementia - congenital or acquired in early childhooda disease that affects the human psyche and intellect.

In everyday life, mental retardation in children referred to mental retardation and children with intellectual development - mentally retarded.

as a separate disease, mental retardation identified at the beginning of the last century.Until then, the diagnosis of "dementia" and put patients with congenital disease, and acquired at an older age mental underdevelopment (senile dementia).

Causes of mental retardation in children

There are many causes of this disease.Experts identify three groups of factors that trigger the appearance of the disease.

Causes of mental retardation of the internal (endogenous) character.These include the types of mental underdevelopment, which are caused by inherited abnormalities specific metabolism, different genetic syndromes, chromoso

mal abnormalities.Among the diseases that contribute to the occurrence of mental retardation in children, called Klinefelter's syndrome, Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis (hereditary disease of the connective tissue), and others.

Causes of mental retardation external (exogenous) character.Include the following causes of disease:

  • intrauterine infections in the mother during pregnancy;
  • immunokonflikt blood - unlike the mother's blood group of the blood group of the child;
  • birth or post-partum trauma the child's head;
  • alcoholism and drug abuse mothers who provoke severe violations of the child nutrition.

Causes of mental retardation mixed nature.As a result of the simultaneous impact on the child of internal and external reasons, developing the most serious forms of the disease.

Degrees disease

degrees of the disease vary depending on the degree of intellectual development and IQ.Intelligence quotient (IQ) - a numerical evaluation of the level of human intelligence.Average IQ value is 100 points.The numerical value below 70 points qualify as mental retardation.

names three degrees of mental retardation in children.

debility.This is the most mild mental retardation.Patients IQ value ranges of 50-70 points.Children with debility usually able to complete primary school, and can adapt to a normal life.Such children are not abstract, they have dominated the concrete-descriptive type of thinking.They are well enough to talk.But often their words do not make sense, based on imitation.Due to quite adequate and independent behavior morons, masked their flawed thinking process.The principal characteristics of this degree of mental retardation are - ability to imitate, suggestibility, mechanically memory.Such people are able to work with his hands.Some of them have the ability to produce in the mind of complex mathematical operations, have excellent mechanical and visual memory.

morons conventionally divided into confusion, angry, stubborn, vengeful, sluggish, apathetic, excitable.

imbecile.This degree of mental retardation is a medium severity.Patients have a value of IQ 20-49 points.They understand the people around it, can not long to utter the phrase.Some of them are able to master the basic skills of self-service, the most basic work skills, perform elementary arithmetic operations.Imbeciles can stand on their own, to walk, to eat, but they are not capable of learning.These patients have mental retardation can express emotions, to adequately respond to praise or blame, to identify attachment to mother.Thinking people of this degree mental retardation is very primitive.They are passive, inert, suggestible, in need of care, are easily lost when the environment is changed.Some of these patients can learn to read to spell, count, to engage elementary physical labor.

idiot.The most severe forms of mental retardation.It is characterized by the almost complete absence of the patient thinking and speaking abilities.Meaning of IQ is less than 20 points.When the idiocy of the patient is defective perception of the world around him.He completely lacking concentration.Of all the emotions such people there are only primitive reactions of pleasure and pain.They are unable to distinguish between relatives from strangers.Patients with this degree of mental retardation is not able to understand it, may themselves recite only certain sounds and words.Most small children can not stand on their own and move around.Often patients are not capable of idiocy chew, swallowing her neprozhevannoy.Some of them eat only liquid food.Due to the fact that these patients mental retardation can not serve themselves, they need constant care.

Forms oligophrenia

Each form of the disease corresponds to the specific reasons for its development.There are four forms of the disease.

first form of mental retardation.These include hereditary diseases that are provoked by the child's parents faulty cells.By this form include patients with microcephaly (reducing the size of the skull and the brain), mental disorders on the background of severe damage to the skin and bones, Down's syndrome.

second form of mental retardation.It includes different types fetopathy (fetal abnormalities) and embriopaty (injuries and diseases of the embryo).This disease is caused by prenatal factors - bacterial, parasitic or viral infections of the pregnant woman, hemolytic (destruction of red blood cells leading to) diseases of the fetus.

third form of mental retardation.Diseases that have emerged as a result of birth trauma, asphyxia (violation of external respiration) or hypoxia (lack of oxygen supply) during childbirth.This includes cases of mental retardation due to severe traumatic brain injury, meningitis or encephalitis, transferred by children under three years.

fourth form of mental retardation.This includes the types of diseases that develop due to the progression of primary congenital disease, for example, various endocrine pathologies or brain defects.

mental retardation in children Treatment is possible only when the nature of metabolic disease (metabolic disorders of the body).At the same time children prescribe drugs that regulate the body's metabolism.

In other types of mental retardation can be carried out supportive therapy to reduce intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow activation.To apply this nootropic (CNS) drugs, amino acids, vitamin agent.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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