Burn - species level , the first first aid


1. Types defeats

2. degree burn

3. First Aid

4. Treatment of burns

5. chemical burn

Burn - is damage to the skin, mucous membranes, deeper lying tissues, which is caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, electricity or radiation energy.


lesions Depending on the cause of occurrence, the following types of burns.

Thermal.There are in contact with hot objects, hot air, steam, hot water.In the case of prolonged contact are formed deep burns.Often they are called hot viscous substances (tar, bitumen, caramel mass), which adhere to the surface of the body and lead to a deep, prolonged heating of tissue.

Electric.Most often encountered when working with electrical equipment, sometimes from lightning.When data comes burns skin lesions, cardiac function, respiratory and other human systems.Little contact with electric shock causes dizziness, fainting.Increased damage causes respiratory failure, and even clinical death.

Chemical.Develops as a result of contact with c

hemicals.The depth of this type of burns depends on the concentration of the chemical reagent and the time of exposure to body tissue.

Ray.For this type of burns are skin lesions with ultraviolet rays.This usually happens at the beach or in the solarium.

degree burn

experts share four degrees of burns.

of I degree.Affected only the epidermis, which is capable of rapid recovery.Within 3-5 days after the burn dissipates swelling, redness passes, exfoliate the affected epidermis.On the burned skin does not remain traces of burns.

II degree burns.There have deeper lesions of the epidermis.On the reddened skin there are blisters filled with clear liquid.Skin restored for 8-12 days.The color of the skin of a new beginning bright pink.After two or three weeks, it becomes a normal color, burn marks disappear.

III degree.Divided into IIIa and ІІІv degree.

When the degree burns IIIa damaged almost all layers of the skin, in addition to sprout (the deepest).On the damaged site appear bubbles, which are filled with a yellowish fluid or jelly-like mass.Often formed scab (crust covering the surface of the burn) white or yellowish, less sensitive to touch, or tingling.Healing takes place within 15-30 days after burn.After the restoration of the skin disappears after 1,5-3 months of its pigmentation.

degree ІІІv characterized by necrosis of all layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.The affected areas formed large bubbles filled with bloody fluid.Often there is a gray or brown crust, which is located below the surrounding skin.

IV degree burns.Also necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis occurs the muscles, tendons and bones.The damaged surface is covered with brown or black thick crust, which is not sensitive to irritations.

after deep burns can not be full recovery of tissues.In their place are formed scars.

First Aid

rules of first aid in case of burns depends on the type of lesion.

first aid for burns thermal.

1.Ustranenie burning factor.If the affected burn clothes, he poured water or covered with dense tissue.In case of contact with clothes burning liquid, remove it immediately.

2. When burn I or II degree of the damaged area is cooled for 15 minutes under running water.Then it is covered with a clean, damp cloth and apply cold.You can not handle the water place burns of III degree.His only covered with a clean damp cloth.

3. It is necessary to give the victim an anesthetic drug, and often drink it with water.

First aid for burns, electric.

1.Otklyuchit from the network device that caused the damage or the general breaker switch to turn off the electricity.

2.Srochno call an ambulance.

3.Pri unconsciousness victim, check his breathing and pulse.When uneven, weak breathing and CPR chest compressions.

4. If the victim is conscious, give him a warm tea, 15-20 drops of tincture of valerian.

first aid for burns ray.

1.Ohlazhdenie.To do this, fit lotions and compresses with cold clean water.

2.Obrabotka antiseptic - chlorhexedine, furatsilin.

3.Obrabotka special means of tanning.Depending on the severity of the burn, you can apply creams with extracts of aloe vera, chamomile, vitamin E. In more serious cases, the effective use of Panthenol.

4.Obezbolivanie.To reduce the pain of burns take Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, Aspirin.Reduce itching and burning will help antihistamines.

Treatment of burns

initial phase of treatment of burns is the right first aid.

Self-treatment may be applied only to the first degree burns, if they are not complicated by concurrent disease (immunocompromised, diabetes), or old age.When

II and, in some cases, III degree burns treatment carried out in hospital.The victim prescribe painkillers, sedatives administered tetanus toxoid.At the same bubbles incised, exfoliated skin is removed, apply dressings Burns.

IV Treatment of burns and, in some cases, III degree is carried out in specialized departments.The victim carried antishock therapy, prevention of infection.Burn wounds treated with open or closed way surgically, including a skin transplant.

chemical burn

Chemical burns occur when aggressive chemical agents, the skin tissue or mucous membranes.

feature of this type of burn is that they can appear immediately after exposure, and in a few hours or days.Damage to tissue destruction and often continues after the contact with the aggressive agent.

Chemical burns often cause the following substances:

  • acid, especially the danger of "aqua regia" - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids;
  • alkali - sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and others;
  • some heavy metals;
  • phosphorus;
  • substances that have cauterizing action - bitumen, gasoline, kerosene, and others.

First aid for burns.

1.Snimayut clothing on which the chemical substance has got.

2.Smyvayut chemical reagent with the skin for 25-30 minutes under flowing water.

3.Neytralizuyut action of chemicals.If the burn is caused by acid, the damaged area is washed 2% solution of soda or soap and water.In the case of a burn injury site alkali wash with a weak solution of vinegar or citric acid.

4.Prikladyvayut to the site of the defeat of a cold wet cloth.

5.On burnt place of the bandage with a clean dry cloth or sterile bandage.

Light burns heal without special treatment.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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