Nystagmus Eye - classification , causes, treatment


1. Classification

2. Causes Nystagmus

3. Symptoms

4. Diagnosis Nystagmus

5. Treatment of nystagmus

Nystagmus - a severe form of oculomotor disturbances, manifested by frequent involuntary oscillatory movements of the eyeballs, which may be due to physiological or pathological causes.For example, this condition may occur in response to rotation of the optokinetic drum or a body in space or under the supervision of the fast-moving subject.In this case, this is a normal phenomenon which serves to preserve vision.

In pathological nystagmus eye each movement cycle consists of involuntary eye deviation from the object and the subsequent reverse refiksatsinnogo hop movement.At the same time the eyes are not focused on specific subjects.Most often, this condition is accompanied by a decrease in visual acuity.


Direction oscillatory movements distinguish nystagmus horizontal, vertical, diagonal and rotational.Horizontal nystagmus is the most common and is ch

aracterized by eye movements from side to side.There is also dissociated nystagmus, in which the eyeballs move in different directions.Such a condition is extremely rare.

By the nature of nystagmus eye movements are divided into pendulum in which the eyes make uniform rocking motion from side to side, tolchkoobrazny, which is characterized by slow movements in the same direction the eye and a quick return back, and mixed, in which the eyes make the pendulum, thejerky movements.

The amplitude oscillatory movements distinguish large-nystagmus (oscillation amplitude of the eye movements of more than 15 degrees), srednekaliberny (from 15 to 5 degrees) and small-caliber (amplitude of less than 5 degrees).

Due to the occurrence of the disease can be congenital or acquired.Congenital often happens with horizontal nystagmus jerky character movements.He appears in children 2-3 months after birth and lasts a lifetime.

acquired nystagmus can be the following types:

- installation - small jerky eye movements at the extreme low frequency abduction sight;

- Optokinetic - due to the repetitive motion of the object in the field of view;

- vestibular - slow eye movement first in one then in other direction, which can lead to dizziness and nausea.

Acquired (physiological) nystagmus is also called the tremor when the fixation eye movements with high frequency and low amplitude, and drift in slow smooth shifts eye.

Causes Nystagmus

main cause of the disease - unstable work oculomotor system, which controls the eyes.This instability may develop due to exposure to central or local factors.Local factors are inborn or acquired reduced vision due to various diseases of the eye, such as clouding of optical media, optic atrophy, albinism, astigmatism, strabismus, myopia, hyperopia, retinal dystrophy and others.

among central or common causes - brain damage of the bridge, the labyrinth, the cerebellum medulla, pituitary, including as a result of head trauma, Meniere's disease (vertigo), poisoning by drugs (including cough and) or narcotics, infectious diseasesears.

spontaneous nystagmus - a sign of a pathological process in the labyrinth of the inner ear or brain.The direction of the movement says about the level of destruction.Thus, horizontal nystagmus points to defeat the maze middle parts of the rhomboid fossa, vertical and diagonal - a sign of the defeat of its upper sections, rotational - lower.The amplitude of the movements of the eyeballs at the same time is an indicator of the degree of destruction of the vestibular analyzer.

nystagmus eyes can also occur as a result of strong tension of the central nervous system due to a temporary disorientation, for example, after a day on the extreme rides.In such cases, the work of the oculomotor system is normalized and nystagmus disappears after recovery orientation.


Besides involuntary eye movement disorder manifests sensitivity, reduced vision, a sense that the visual image is shifted, blurs and trembles.It may also develop a sense of instability, dizziness.At the same time the patient himself may notice abnormal immediately, but only after the concentration on this defect.

Some varieties of the disease does not lead to severe vision loss.

Diagnosis Nystagmus

disease is diagnosed ophthalmologist during the inspection, in which he explores the basic visual functions such as visual acuity, the condition of optical media, fundus, optic nerve, retina, oculomotor apparatus.It also turns the underlying disease that led to the development of eye nystagmus, which is appointed by the neurologist's consultation and deeper electrophysiological studies.

Treatment of nystagmus

complete cure nystagmus pathological origin can not be.The therapy begins with the treatment of the underlying disease, which led to the development of this condition.When astigmatism or farsightedness - a vision correction with glasses, as well as hardware nystagmus treatment to reduce its symptoms and improve visual acuity.

To improve nutrition eye tissues, especially the retina, prescribed medical treatment of nystagmus, which is taking vasodilator medications and vitamin complexes.

In severe forms of the disease to reduce the vibrational motions of surgery provided.The operation is performed stronger attenuation and amplification of weak muscles, resulting in reduced amplitude of oscillation eyes, head position is rectified, increased visual acuity.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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