Nephrotic syndrome - diagnosis , symptoms, treatment


1. Symptoms

2. diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome

3. treatment of nephrotic syndrome

In this disease marked renal lesions of various etiologies, which in turnturn, lead to increased protein loss in urine.

Nephrotic syndrome in children and adults are divided into primary and secondary.

primary form of the disease is the result of such an independent kidney disease as glomerulonephritis.

development of secondary form is associated with a large group of diseases that can be either congenital or acquired in nature, and in some cases have hereditary abnormalities.

These include:

- systemic vasculitis;

- systemic lupus erythematosus (diffuse lesion of the connective tissue);

- thrombosis of renal veins;

- infectious nature of the disease (hepatitis, malaria, syphilis, tuberculosis);

- diabetes;

- reaction to medication in epilepsy, as well as some vitamins, antibiotics and drugs gold, mercury, bismuth.

addition distinguish complete and incomplete form of this disease, a

nd depending on the nature of chronic, subacute and acute nephritic syndrome.


The first and most striking symptom of this disease is the swelling has growing character.More often than not it appears on the eyelids and then apply to such parts of the body like the abdomen, scrotum and lower limbs.

Unlike nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, the symptoms are much stronger, in some cases, the amount of water retained in the body, can reach 1/3 of the weight of the person.

of the fluid distribution in the body depends on its status, for example, when a person is most swollen lower limbs, and in the supine position swells side, adjacent to the bed.

following symptoms of nephrotic syndrome is a significant increase in urine specific gravity with a substantial reduction of its amount.Reducing the amount of urine output (diuresis) is associated with a reduction in blood volume and the deterioration of the blood supply.

noted the high content of protein in the urine, its daily loss may reach 20 grams, which is rare in other diseases of the kidneys.In adults

early in the disease can increase blood pressure, indicating the development of renal disease and adverse disease course.

symptom of nephrotic syndrome in children may be, on the contrary, a sharp decrease in blood pressure, such as when standing up.

The course of the disease usually takes a long period of time, with acute nephritic syndrome may develop into chronic.

In the event that there had been no timely treatment, the swelling may persist for months and then suddenly disappear, for example, when attaching a severe infection.

on time can improve the blood / urine indices, but only in rare cases, this means the final recovery, since the aggravation usually occurs within a few weeks.

Throughout this disease have an increased susceptibility to infections, even the common cold in this case may lead to severe and long-term relapse.

diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome

Most often, when nephrotic syndrome varies skin conditions, when viewed from the doctors say the increased pallor and dryness of the skin in addition to the touch becomes colder.

Just when viewed marked increase in the size of the stomach, furred tongue and, of course, edema.

Despite this, especially in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome focuses on laboratory parameters.

During the general analysis of urine revealed its higher density (1030-1040), the presence of cholesterol crystals in the sediment, drops of neutral fat and high protein content.

During the general blood test indicated bleeding disorders, decreased level of hemoglobin / red blood cells and an increase in platelet count.Diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome can also include blood chemistry.

addition to accurate diagnosis of this disease specialists perform procedures ECG and ultrasound of the kidneys.

In general diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome does not cause much difficulty, some difficulty is only clarification of the causes of this disease.It is for this purpose and appointed by clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies.Proper diagnosis will allow to choose for each patient an individual treatment.

treatment of nephrotic syndrome

Earlier treatment of nephrotic syndrome was of exclusively dietary in nature, changes in diet, experts have tried to replace the loss of protein.This leads to increased mortality, though its causes were considered intercurrent infection.

For selection of the correct course of treatment of nephrotic syndrome, you must identify the exact factors that caused its development.

recommended diet in this disease, not only provides a reduction of salt intake, but also to obtain 3 g of protein per kg body weight per day.

Currently, the treatment of nephrotic syndrome are very popular corticosteroids.It is recommended to receive prednisolone for 8 weeks, as follows:

- 1-2 weeks (daily dose should not exceed 2 mg / kg.);

- 3-4 weeks (daily dose is 75% of the previous one);

- 5-6 weeks (daily dose is 50% of the previous one);

- 7-8 weeks (daily dose is 25% of the original).

At congenial disease becomes noticeable improvement on 8-10 day increases the amount of urine disappears proteinuria, and blood counts return to normal.

This method of treatment of nephrotic syndrome in adults and children can lead to full recovery, but in some cases it requires repeated conduct.

If even after a year of treatment sometimes have symptoms of acute nephrotic syndrome, and the patient can not do without maintenance doses of prednisolone, a biopsy is recommended.

In the case of remission lasts for 2 years, a full recovery occurs in 60-70% of cases.

the presence of renal impairment is recommended dialysis and kidney transplantation.

In cases where the disease to other infections joined in parallel are assigned to antibiotics.

Undoubtedly, the effectiveness of treatment depends on the cause of the disease, so it is crucial to ask for help and an in-depth diagnosis.

Prevention of this disease include early treatment of kidney diseases and thorough sanitation of foci of infection.It is also recommended to avoid hypothermia.

Also be careful when taking medications that have nephrotoxic and can cause allergic reactions.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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