Diabetes insipidus - Symptoms , Diagnosis, Treatment


1. development mechanism and causes of diabetes insipidus

2. symptoms

3. diabetes insipidus in children

4. disease diagnosis

5. treatment of diabetes insipidus

diabetes insipidus - a disease that develops due to dysfunction of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus and characterized by the release of large amounts of urine and severe thirst.

The disease is common in children and people aged 18-25.

development mechanism and causes of diabetes insipidus

All the blood of the human body passes through the kidneys.In the kidneys, it is cleansed of harmful and unwanted substances.After that, unnecessary fluid excreted from the body in urine.The remaining liquid is returned to the bloodstream.This process is called reuptake (reabsorption).Reabsorption monitors hormone vasopressin, which is produced in the hypothalamus.Vasopressin is accumulated in the pituitary and enters the bloodstream when necessary.

vasopressin does not enter the blood during the development of diabe

tes insipidus.As a result of impaired reabsorption process and the patient has a thirst and excessive urination.These symptoms are characteristic of diabetes.The difference is that in this process is not involved glucose.Therefore, the disease called diabetes insipidus.

Experts suggest the main causes of this disease:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • malignant diseases;
  • infectious diseases;
  • encephalitis (an inflammatory disease of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the soft membranes of the brain);
  • and autoimmune disease;
  • syphilis;
  • aneurysm (bulging of the wall of the artery) vessels of the brain;
  • craniopharyngioma (brain tumor benign nature);
  • skull or brain injury;
  • surgery on the brain.


The main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are excessive urination (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsia).

polyuria is a significant increase in the daily volume of urine.Thus colorless urine with a small amount of salt and other elements.

Polydipsia is characterized by the use of a large volume of liquid.It is often equated with the volume of urine output.

The most common symptoms of diabetes insipidus are growing fast enough.Particularly conducive to their expression of pregnancy in women.

As a result, frequent urge to urinate the patient has neuroses, insomnia, emotional instability, fatigue.

With long-term course of the disease in the renal pelvis, ureter and bladder expansion there.As a result, the water formed overload hyperextension and ptosis of the stomach.The patient suffers from chronic intestinal irritation and biliary dyskinesia.

The symptoms of diabetes insipidus and include dry skin, loss of appetite.Then the patient has headaches, dehydration, vomiting, low blood pressure, weight loss.

Many people suffering from this disease have symptoms of neurological disorders, pituitary insufficiency (impaired consciousness, fever).

diabetes insipidus in children

As in adults, diabetes insipidus in children is manifested by polyuria and polydipsia.The child can drink up to 10-15 liters of water per day.Many children can be day and night incontinence.

The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are added moodiness, irritability child.He refuses to eat, requiring only water.The children observed dryness of skin and mucous membranes, they lose weight.As a result of reducing the release of saliva and digestive juices in children decreased appetite, there is a tendency to constipation, developing colitis, gastritis.A frequent symptom of diabetes insipidus in children is gastric distension and his omission.

Sometimes a child manifest violation of the work of the cardiovascular system - tachycardia (increased heart rate), lability (changeability) of the pulse.In addition, many children suffer from joint pain, hypochromic anemia, chilliness.

often in children suffering from diabetes insipidus, there is a sharp dehydration.It is manifested by headache, restlessness, nausea, vomiting.In some patients the fluctuations in body temperature, blurred vision.

In rare cases, babies are found many signs of endocrine functions - a delay of physical and sexual development, obesity, gigantism, dwarfism, cachexia (extreme exhaustion of the body).


disease most commonly in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus polyuria test used.It is based on the fact that normal daily urine volume is not greater than three liters.The excess of this figure, the low density of the urine indicates progression of the disease.

Another method of diagnosis of diabetes insipidus - test suhoedeniem.The essence of the test is that the patient abstains from drinking water for eight hours.If at the same time drastically reduced weight and urine specific gravity is low, the diagnosis is confirmed.

the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus set the presence or absence of tumor in the hypothalamic-pituitary region, neurological disorders, and kidney abnormalities.

treatment of diabetes insipidus

In cases where the disease is a symptom of a disease, eliminate its cause, conducting treatment of the underlying disease.

treatment of diabetes insipidus based on replacement therapy.Thus a hormone vasopressin replaced by synthetic analogues.Most often to compensate for the level of antidiuretic hormone used Adiuretin and Desmopressin.They can be produced in tablet form or in the form of nasal sprays.There are medications with prolonged action, with a longer therapeutic effect (Pitressin Tanat).

to replenish water and salt balance in the treatment of diabetes insipidus use infusional saline solutions.The volume of urine formation is reduced with the help of drugs, diuretics.

Equally important in the treatment of diabetes insipidus is a special diet.It is characterized by limiting protein intake, thereby reducing the load on the kidneys.Furthermore, in the diet to increase the number of carbohydrate.Food should be taken frequently, fractional, increasing its content in vegetables and fruits.As a beverage to quench thirst recommended juices, fruit drinks, fruit drinks.

diabetes insipidus - quite a serious illness.Untimely its treatment can lead to severe dehydration.Such a condition has serious consequences, including hypotension and collapse.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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