Neutropenia - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. development mechanism and causes of neutropenia

2. symptoms

3. Diagnosis and treatment of neutropenia

Neutropenia - a disease which is associated with a decreasethe number of neutrophils in the blood.Neutrophils, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or belong to the white blood cells.

in children under one year of the most frequent chronic benign neutropenia.It is characterized by cyclical flow rate at which neutrophils can significantly decrease, and then independently rises to a normal value.Benign neutropenia in children usually disappear in 2-3 years of age.

development mechanism and causes of neutropenia

Neutrophils are the main cell body's defense system against bacterial, viral and fungal infections.They play an important role in the body's fight against pathogenic microorganisms and wound healing.

mature neutrophils in the bone marrow for two weeks.Then they enter the blood stream and circulate for about six hours in search of pathogens.Upon detection of a foreign

agent, the neutrophils attach to it.They produce toxic substances, by means of which kill and digest pathogens.This process is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction at the site of infection.It is manifested by redness and swelling of the skin over the place of inflammation, the local temperature rise.

normal neutrophil count is approximately 48-78% of all leukocytes.Reducing the total leukocyte level and mean reduction of neutrophils.

neutropenia develops as a result of destruction, consolidation or reduction of neutrophil production.

There are many causes of neutropenia:

  • viral, bacterial or parasitic diseases, such as Epstein Barr virus, malaria, tuberculosis, HIV;
  • drugs the use of which may lead to damage of the bone marrow directly or neutrophils, such as agents used in chemotherapy;
  • bone marrow diseases such as leukemia, myelofibrosis, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome - one of the most frequent causes of neutropenia;
  • significant deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid;
  • radiation treatment;
  • congenital disorders of neutrophil function, or bone marrow, in particular Kostmana syndrome;
  • hypersplenism - a disease in which too in an enlarged spleen destroyed blood cells;
  • autoimmune destruction of neutrophil cells.

In some cases, the cause of neutropenia in children - not enough good work of the pancreas.This form of the disease called syndrome Shvahmana-Daimonda-Oski.


In the acute form of neutropenia symptoms may occur suddenly over a few hours or days.The chronic form of the disease develops gradually over months or even years.

Due to the lack of specific signs of the disease is often not diagnosed until the disease is not contagious appears.

neutropenia Symptoms of the acute form are fever, in some cases, the appearance of painful ulcers of the mouth and near the anus.Often the disease is accompanied by bacterial pneumonia or other serious infectious diseases.

benign neutropenia is characterized by a mild course.This is due to the fact that the level of neutrophils from time to time is increased to normal values.

most severe symptoms of febrile neutropenia form, which is characterized by a significant decrease in the number of neutrophils in the blood.The patient's body temperature rises sharply to 39? C, there sweating, tremors, severe weakness, vomiting, heart rhythm disturbances.In severe cases, possible cardiovascular collapse.

Symptoms of neutropenia in children with the syndrome Shvahmana-Daimonda-Oski is a small growth and mental retardation.

Diagnosis and treatment of neutropenia

main method of diagnosis of neutropenia is a clinical study of blood.To determine the causes of disease using additional methods of research.The most common use of bone marrow biopsy.

method for treating neutropenia selected depending on its cause and severity of the development.If the cause of the disease was taking medications, they stop taking opportunities.

Mild disease or benign neutropenia usually do not require therapy.

Severe disease often contributes to the rapid development of severe infections.The patient must be immediately hospitalized in the inpatient unit.In this case, neutropenia treatment begins with the application of strong antibacterial agents.The patient is placed in an isolated room in which sterile conditions are maintained and periodically exposure to UV rays.

To avoid reducing the number of neutrophils patients often prescribe growth factors that stimulate the production of white blood cells.

If the cause of the disease has an autoimmune or allergic reaction, apply corticosteroid agents.

In all forms of the disease in therapy using drugs that increase the patient's immune system.

In case of neutropenia was triggered by an increase in the spleen, its removal is carried out.

Sometimes surgical treatment of neutropenia - transplant (transplant) bone marrow.This operation is carried out under strict medical indications, as it has side effects.It is performed to patients no older than twenty years.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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