18 May

Neuroblastoma - causes, symptoms, stage treatment

Contents:

1. causes of cancer and places its localization

2. symptoms and stages of neuroblastoma

3. Diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma

4. forecast

Neuroblastoma - embryonic malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system.Neuroblastoma - the first in the incidence of malignancy in children up to 2 years, and the fourth - in children under 15 years.In adults, this type of tumor is diagnosed very rarely.

causes of cancer and places its localization

Causes of neuroblastoma in children are not known precisely.Scientists have no doubt in the fact that the occurrence of tumors is directly related to congenital or acquired pathological changes of cells' DNA.If the baby has a defect in embryonic neuroblasts (nerve cell precursor cells), then they do not mature into full-fledged nerve cells, but instead grow, divide and form a tumor.

Despite the fact that theoretically the tumor can occur at any site of the body, in most cases, doctors diagnose retroperitoneal neuroblastoma, a

favorite place where localization - the adrenal glands.

Retroperitoneal adrenal neuroblastoma occurs in 40-50% of patients in 30% of cases, the primary tumor develops from the sympathetic ganglia of the lumbar trunk, 15% - of its thoracic, 1% - of the cervical department.Sometimes the tumor grows from pelvic paraganglia - additional organs of the sympathetic nervous system.

Neuroblastoma spreads lymphatic and blood ways, most often in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver and skin.

This is a very mysterious swelling.In children up to a year, even at its last stage neuroblastoma, for unknown reasons, the fact can spontaneously develop into a benign tumor or a decrease in size and eventually disappear completely.

However, in most cases, neuroblastoma in children - highly malignant tumor with an aggressive course and rapid development of metastases.

symptoms and stages of neuroblastoma

Children's Neuroblastoma is also a very insidious disease, as for a long time can not express themselves."Quiet" tumor behavior is often observed until its last stage, that is, as long as the treatment of neuroblastoma already ineffective.

can distinguish the following possible symptoms of neuroblastoma in children:

  • enlarged abdomen, with feeling are determined by dense nesmeschaemaya tumor nodules - a symptom of retroperitoneal neuroblastoma
  • difficulty breathing and swallowing, cough, sternal deformity may be a sign of mediastinal
  • tumor weakness, numbnesshands and feet occurs in the case of retroperitoneal neuroblastoma ingrowth into the spinal canal
  • bulging eyes and dark circles under them possible with the placement of the tumor eyeball
  • violation acts of urination and defecation are observed in the pelvic retroperitoneal neuroblastoma.

addition, neuroblastoma in children manifests itself by some of the classic symptoms, such as: weight loss, loss of appetite, lack of energy, a slight increase in body temperature.

In the case of possible metastasis bone pain, anemia, enlargement of the liver and lymph nodes, a significant decrease in immunity, bluish or purple spots on the skin.

Treatment of neuroblastoma is impossible without determining the stage of its development.

stage 1 neuroblastoma is characterized by a fully localized resectable tumor and absence of metastases in regional lymph nodes.

stage 2A shows localized tumors, most of which is amenable to removal.Lymph nodes are not affected.

In stage 2B in the presence of a unilateral tumor metastasis occurs unilateral regional lymph nodes.

stage 3 neuroblastoma is characterized by bilateral tumors with or without metastases in the regional lymph nodes, or one-way (middle) with tumor metastatic lymph nodes opposite.

On 4 stage is widespread proliferation of the tumor, metastases are located in the lymph nodes, bones, bone marrow, liver, and other organs.

4S stage of neuroblastoma are diagnosed only in young children up to a year.It is characterized by the presence of the primary tumor and distant metastases.

Diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma

diagnosis of neuroblastoma is based on the results of biochemical analysis of urine and blood.To confirm the diagnosis biopsy (taking a sample of tissue) of the tumor and to determine the stage neuroblastoma - biopsies of regional lymph nodes and suspected presence of metastasis sites.Lessons in the cells are subject to biopsy histological examination, after which possible diagnosis.To find out whether the bone marrow amazed spend spinal tap.To determine the size of the tumor, the presence and location of metastases is necessary to conduct ultrasound, computer and magnetic resonance tomography, scintigraphy, bone scan, positron emission tomography.

Treatment of neuroblastoma in children performed traditional triad practices:

1. Chemotherapy

2. Radiotherapy

3. Operative surgery

Treatment of neuroblastoma stage 1 and 2A, in almost all cases, surgery.As practice shows, after complete resection of tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed.

When diagnosis neuroblastoma stage 2B except surgery child needs to take a course of postoperative chemotherapy and radiation.

diagnosis of stage 3 neuroblastoma says that the large size of the tumor and it is inoperable.The main task of the doctors in this case - the non-surgical reduction of the tumor size.To that end, preoperative chemotherapy is performed, then in many cases, may have an operation.After surgery, in particular in order to eliminate residual (residual, that which remains) of the tumor, radiation therapy is used.

Despite advances in the treatment of malignant tumors, modern medicine has not yet found an effective way to treat neuroblastoma stage 4.Even the highest dose of chemotherapy, multiple body irradiation in conjunction with marrow transplantation infrequently lead to the desired result.

In young patients with neuroblastoma stage 4S has a good chance of recovery, as it is at this stage, there are many cases of regression.

forecast

Neyroblastomatpervoy stage in almost 100% of cases can be cured.Approximately the same predictive picture and the second stage of the disease (survival rate becomes 97%).60% of patients with neuroblastoma third stage, provided a competent modern treatment get rid of the disease.In children with 4S stadieytshansy a living is very high, about 75% of them successfully defeat the disease.

Unfortunately only 10-20% of children who are diagnosed with neuroblastoma classical fourth stage, live longer than 5 years after treatment.Nevertheless, it is important to understand that the medicine does not stand still, apply all the new classes of chemotherapy drugs, new methods of immunotherapy.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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