Mitral valve insufficiency - symptoms, treatment


1. pathogenesis of the disease

2. Symptoms of mitral valve insufficiency

3. mitral regurgitation 1 degree: peculiarities of

4. mitral insufficiency 2degree: peculiarities of

5. mitral regurgitation grade 3: peculiarities of

6. treatment of mitral valve insufficiency

The mitral valve is a valve that is located between the left ventricle and left atrium.Its function is to prevent regurgitation of blood into the left atrium during systole.

mitral insufficiency (SMC) - the inability of the valve to block blood regurgitation from the left ventricle into the left atrium.

regurgitation called rapid blood flow that occurs during systole and is the opposite direction of normal movement.

mitral insufficiency is extremely rare to observe as an independent disease (only in 2% of the total number of heart disease).It is often accompanied by malformations of the aortic valve, and mitral stenosis holes.

There are two kinds of diseases such as functional (relative) and orga

nic mitral regurgitation.Functional NMK flow caused by acceleration, as well as expansion of the left ventricle that has heart hemodynamic overload.Organic CVD is the result of anatomical pathology of connective tissue heart valve plates and tendon strands, which it is fixed.Regarding the hemodynamic data types of the disease, then they have the same character.The pathogenesis of the disease

systole is a series of successive contractions of the ventricles of the heart in which the left ventricular ejection of blood occurs in the aorta, and from the right - in the pulmonary trunk.

aortic pressure is significantly higher than the pressure of the left atrium, causing regurgitation.During systole, there is a reverse flow of blood in the left atrium, which is caused by incomplete atrioventricular cover holes.

Consequently, during diastole (relaxation of the heart condition in the interval between contractions) occurs receipt of additional units of blood, which leads to an overload of the left departments of heart muscle and increase the strength of its contractions.This is accompanied by myocardial hyperfunction.Onset of the disease goes unnoticed due to the good compensation.But in the course of the pathological process occurs hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the left atrium, which provokes an increase in pressure in the pulmonary vessels.In turn, there is pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid valve.

Symptoms of mitral valve insufficiency

As a rule, there are no signs of the disease, with good compensation.In turn, expressed pathology has these symptoms:

  • cardiac arrhythmia and shortness of breath during physical activity at first, and then in a state of rest;
  • sharp attacks of dyspnea (cardiac asthma);
  • fatigue;
  • cardialgia;
  • swelling and pain in the right upper quadrant, due to enlargement of the liver;
  • dry cough with little sputum, sometimes with blood;
  • pastoznost lower extremities;
  • pain in the heart, which are piercing, crushing, aching in nature, and are not associated with physical activity.

In the case of payment of the mitral valve insufficiency symptoms can be hidden and not appear for several years.In turn, the power of the manifestations of the disease due to the severity of regurgitation.

  • electrocardiogram (ECG), which makes it possible to determine the existence of congestion and hypertrophy of the left atrium and ventricle, and in the third stage to detect changes in the right heart;:

    following methods are used for the diagnosis of this disease of the heart

  • echocardiography (echocardiography), which allows to detect hypertrophy and dilatation of the left heart;
  • X-rays of the chest, which aims to study the degree of pulmonary venous hypertension;
  • ventriculography, determining the existence and degree of regurgitation;
  • ventricular catheterization - a method of determining the dynamics of the pressure in the ventricles of the heart.

To date, there is overdiagnosis of mitral insufficiency, ie,frequent false medical reports about the presence of the subjects of this heart disease.In turn, the modern methods of diagnosis have shown that the minimum degree of regurgitation may occur even in a healthy body.

mitral regurgitation 1 degree: peculiarities of

for the first degree of the disease is characterized by hemodynamic compensation, as well as the inability of the valve to block blood from flowing back.At this stage of the disease no symptoms of circulatory failure, so the patient does not experience symptoms of the disease, even with active exercise.

Symptoms of mitral regurgitation 1 degree, which manifest themselves in the diagnosis, systolic murmurs are small and the expansion boundaries of the heart to the left.In turn, the ECG shows no signs of valve dysfunction.

mitral regurgitation grade 2: peculiarities of

This degree of the disease manifests itself forming the passive form of venous pulmonary hypertension.

This stage has a number of symptoms of disorders of blood circulation, which include:

  • shortness of breath;
  • tachycardia as during exercise and at rest;
  • bouts of cough and cardiac asthma;
  • hemoptysis.

Examination of a patient with mitral valve insufficiency of 2nd degree reveal the expansion boundaries of the heart to the right (up to 0,5 cm), left (1 - 2 cm) and up, as well as present systolic murmurs.ECG also demonstrates changes in the atrial component.

mitral regurgitation grade 3: peculiarities of

right ventricular hypertrophy is shown at the third degree of this disease, which in turn, has the characteristic features as: enlargement of the liver, pastoznost tissue, increased venous pressure.

study mitral regurgitation grade 3 reveals a significant expansion of the heart borders and expressed systolic murmurs.EKG shows left ventricular hypertrophy, symptoms, and the presence of mitral wave.

treatment of mitral valve insufficiency

choice of method of treatment of mitral valve insufficiency depends on the severity of the disease, as well as size and functional condition of the heart.

disease Conservative treatment aims to control the heart rate, reduction in the degree of regurgitation, as well as the prevention of blood clots.

In latent and chronic form of the disease use drugs may favorably affect the recovery of the size of the heart muscle, but have no effect directly on the state of the valve.In this case it is necessary surgery.

In acute and progressive forms of the disease drugs, unfortunately, are also ineffective, so the patient is shown the operation.During the surgical intervention is usually performed mitral valve implantation.

Forecasts for the treatment of mitral regurgitation depends on the dynamics of the disease, the degree of regurgitation, as well as the severity of valvular pathology.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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