Symptoms and treatment of neuritis of the trigeminal nerve

Neuritis of the trigeminal nerve is an inflammatory process that seizes the nerve and myelin sheath( the nerve fiber membrane).The triadic nerve belongs to the largest cranial nerves that spread to the face and teeth area.

There are many reasons for the development of trigeminal neuritis. The most common reasons are as follows:

  • bacterial or viral infection - influenza, tuberculosis, syphilis and other diseases;
  • chronic inflammatory processes that form in the area of ​​teeth, gums, orbit, maxillary sinuses;
  • complications in dental operations;
  • different types of intoxication of the body, for example, poisoning;
  • allergic reactions;
  • lack of certain vitamins and trace elements;
  • injury;
  • supercooling;
  • tumor.

Symptoms of trigeminal neuritis

The main symptom of neuritis of the trigeminal nerve is a pain syndrome of high intensity. The nature of the pain is very different - shooting, stabbing, tearing, cutting, burning. It is localized in the region of innervation( the conn

ection of nerve fibers to a particular part of the body or organ) of the branches of the trigeminal nerve. But the area of ​​soreness with this disease often captures and neighboring areas - cheeks, lower jaw, chin. Often the pain is accompanied by reflex spasms of mimic and chewing muscles, impaired sensibility.

A patient with neuritis of the trigeminal nerve experiences paroxysmal pains of different duration of seizures - from a few seconds to 2-3 minutes. Often the attack can last for an hour. Pain syndrome spreads throughout the face, accompanied by discharge from the nose, redness of the face, lacrimation. Another sign of this disease is increased salivation during the bouts of pain.

In this disease, distinguish characteristic and uncharacteristic pain.

The characteristic pain is unstable and heterogeneous. The patient can feel it very intensely or completely stop feeling. Specific characteristic pain is compared to electric shock.

Uncharacteristic pain of the trigeminal nerve neuritis - continues throughout the period of inflammation. This is a pain syndrome of medium intensity. It affects a larger area than with characteristic pain and is more difficult to treat.

In addition, symptomatic neuritis of the trigeminal nerve is symptomatic pain. They are manifested when chewing, laughing, touching, changing the temperature of the environment. Because of the occurrence of symptomatic pain, it is difficult for patients to perform standard actions, for example, to wash, brush their teeth, shave.

This disease can affect the entire nerve or its individual branches - the chin, lingual, lunar, buccal, palatine nerves. Therefore, violations of sensitivity and pain can appear in different areas of the face. Thus, with the neuritis of the chin of the trigeminal nerve, a sensitivity disorder and pain in the area of ​​the lower lip and chin from the affected side occur. With the disease of the lingual branch of the trigeminal nerve, the pain syndrome will be localized in front of the tongue. In addition, this area of ​​language loses surface and taste sensitivity.

Treatment of trigeminal neuritis

Treatment of neuritis of the trigeminal nerve is a rather complicated and lengthy process. It is carried out depending on the symptoms of the disease and the causes that caused it.

If the cause of the disease is an inflammatory process, apply anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs.

In the treatment of trigeminal neuritis caused by allergy or intoxication, first eliminate the factors that caused an allergic reaction or intoxication.

Sometimes neuritis develops as a result of nerve compression with spikes or a tumor. In such a situation, dissection of adhesions or removal of the tumor is performed.

In the event that the development of the disease is facilitated by a trauma or bruise, medications are used to eliminate pain, inflammation and the removal of excess fluid from the body.

Patients are prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins( mainly B vitamins).

In the complex therapy of neuritis of the trigeminal nerve, physiotherapy methods are effectively used. For anesthesia and rapid recovery of the nerve, electrophoresis is used for lidase, iodine, novocaine, ultrasound with hydrocortisone, electric field UHF, impulse currents. If the restoration of nerve functions is slow, paraffin or mud applications, chamber hydro-galvanic baths, electrical stimulation of muscles with impulse currents are prescribed.

Massage in combination with exercise therapy improves nerve conduction, regional circulation, metabolism in adjacent tissues and speeds up the process of nerve repair.

For the treatment of trigeminal neuritis, anticonvulsants and antidepressants are used. In severe or prolonged course of the disease, alcoholization( injection of alcohol into the nerve for prolonged interruption of its conductivity) of individual nerve branches, dressing or blockage of the sensory spine of the trigeminal nerve is done.

Treatment of trigeminal neuritis is more successful in young patients. In elderly patients, the prognosis is much worse.


1. Symptoms of trigeminal neuritis

2. Treatment of trigeminal neuritis


This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.

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