Urolithiasis - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment


1. Causes

2. symptoms and clinical signs of urolithiasis

3. Diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis

4. disease prevention

Urolithiasis (urolithiasis synonym) - metabolic disease, which manifests itself formation of stones (stones) in the urinary tract organs.


Causes of stone formation is not fully known, but it is known that the predisposition to urolithiasis occurs when even a slight metabolic disorders.Such disruption results in accumulation in the urinary system organs insoluble salts which subsequently form a stone.In most cases (75% of cases) there are stones oxalates, phosphates less, urate and others.

In addition, there are factors that increase the likelihood of symptoms of urolithiasis.Among them:

  • sweating
  • excessive eating spicy and fatty foods, and hard water
  • diseases of the urinary and reproductive system
  • diseases of the stomach, intestines, bones
  • lack of vitamins (particularly vitamins A, B and D)
  • conducting an inactive way of life
  • side effect of some medications.

symptoms and clinical signs of urolithiasis

common symptom of urolithiasis - pain that changes its place of localization depending on the location of the stone.In the case of immobility of stone it is aching in nature.But when pain becomes acute cramping in nature, it is said that the stone changes its location, and frequent cases after such attacks entirely calculus comes from the body.

Localization of pain when urolithiasis:

  • when stone is present in the kidney, there is pain in the kidney area, or concurrent (alternate) pain in both kidneys
  • if the stone is in the ureter, severe pain is felt in the groin, abdomen,genitals and thighs
  • with stones bladder pain localized in the lower abdomen and genital area, feel it when driving and urinating

in addition, severe, unbearable, cramping pain (renal colic) occurs in the case of overlapping stone ureteral lumen.The attack of renal colic subsides after a stone out of the ureter.

Symptoms of kidney stones with renal colic:

  • poor general condition of the patient, nausea, vomiting
  • weakness, palpitations
  • feeling of dryness in the mouth
  • fever, chills
  • constipation.

main clinical sign of urolithiasis - blood in the urine, which often occurs after physical exertion or renal colic attack.

When the stones of the bladder and the lower part of the ureter person concerned:

  • frequent urination
  • symptom of "laying".Characterized by sudden interruption of urination process, the resumption of which is possible only after the change of body position
  • inflammation of the urinary tract.

When diagnosing urolithiasis in 70-80% of patients find pus in the urine, which indicates the presence of infection.

Older people have symptoms of kidney stones are less pronounced than in the 30-55-year-olds.Typically, this is due to a low tone of the urinary tract.

very hard to carry the disease, pregnant women, signs of urolithiasis they appear more pronounced and frequent.In addition, the situation is exacerbated by the accession often urinary tract infections, which often leads to spontaneous abortion.

rate of development of the disease in each individual case, one person stones over the years can not express themselves, and the other six months "grow" up to impressive sizes and greatly overshadow his life.

Diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis

diagnosis of urolithiasis by using:

  • laboratory urinalysis and blood
  • ultrasound examination of the urinary system
  • cystoscopy
  • X-ray examination of the kidneys and pelvis (urography)
  • computer and magnetic resonance tomography.

increased salt concentration, the presence of fresh red blood cells, high levels of white blood cells in urine - is one of the clinical signs of kidney stones, which is taken into consideration when making a diagnosis your doctor.

Complete blood count little informative in the diagnosis of urolithiasis.Only if a fit of intestinal colic in the blood may increase the level of white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, a decrease in hemoglobin.

ultrasound of the urinary system - the easiest way to diagnose urolithiasis.It can detect kidney stones, bladder and ureter in the upper part.To detect concretions need to undergo X-ray examination in the lower part of the ureter, which is also the basis in choosing a method of treatment of urolithiasis.

treatment of the disease can begin after diagnosis, which, depending on the complexity of each case is carried out:

1. surgical or endoscopic intervention

2. The method of contact or non-contact lithotripsy

3. medical methods

main goal in the treatment of urolithiasisdisease - removal of stones from the urinary system.For small stones (eg, urate) applies medical treatment, the essence of which - taking medication to dissolve the stones.

Herbal preparations (such kanefron, tsiston) are used for both treatment and prevention of urolithiasis.

Kidney stones (up to 2.5 cm) and ureter (1.5 cm) is divided by the shock-wave lithotripsy.

Prompt surgical treatment of urolithiasis applies in the event of large stones in the kidney.If the stone can not move from the ureter into the bladder, it is possible to do without surgery, it can be removed endoscopically.

In addition, at any stage of treatment of urolithiasis in order to facilitate the patient's condition (pain relief) used non-narcotic (and, if necessary, and narcotic) analgesics (ketanov, no-spa, baralgin, deksalgin and others).


disease best prevention of urolithiasis - proper diet, which is selected for each patient individually, taking into account all the characteristics of the disease, in particular of the chemical composition of the extracted stone.If urate should exclude meat and bean products, with oxalates - dairy products, chocolate, cocoa, green vegetables, strawberries, currants and other foods with a high content of calcium, with phosphate rocks limit fish and dairy products.

patients with urolithiasis, as well as people with a predisposition to the disease should consume at least 2 liters.of fluid per day, and when the first symptoms of urolithiasis immediately go to the doctor-urologist.

As a preventive measure to take good decoctions of herbs with diuretic action.

Prevention of urolithiasis also consists in preventing the recurrence of stone formation, which occur in every third patient.Therefore it is very important to carry out control tests (complete blood count and urine tests, ultrasound, X-rays).


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

make an appointment to see a doctor

Latest Blog Post

Phimosis in boys and adults - treatment , surgery
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. symptoms of phimosis 2. Causes of phimosis 3. Complications 4. Treatment of phimosis 5. Prevention Phimo...

Ovarian fibroma - types , symptoms , treatments
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Types of ovarian fibroma 2. causes of fibroids 3. Clinical manifestations 4. Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian ...

Fibroadenoma breast cancer - symptoms , treatment and removal
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Symptoms fibroadenoma 2. Diagnostics 3. treatment of fibroadenomas 4. Treatment folk methods fibroadenoma ...