Mitral stenosis - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment


1. Causes of mitral stenosis

2. Classification

3. clinical picture of mitral valve stenosis

4. Complications of the disease

5. Treatmentmitral stenosis

mitral stenosis - a serious disease of the cardiovascular system, in which there is narrowing of the opening between the left ventricle and left atrium.Between these cameras is two-folding mitral valve narrowing holes which indicated the difficulty of passage of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

Causes of mitral stenosis

factors causing narrowing of the mitral valve:

  • Rheumatism, which is a complication of tonsillitis (strep throat infection).Rheumatic fever often results in the development of stenosis of the mitral valve.This infection contributes to thickening of the valve leaflets, which results in their limited movements.
  • Congenital heart defects.Sometimes mitral stenosis can be congenital disorders.Such patients usually need surgical treatment.In most cases, the causes of this congenital
    pathology is unknown.
  • There are also such a situation, when the opening of the mitral valve is blocked by a tumor, blood clots or growths, simulating mitral valve stenosis.At older ages, on the cusp of the mitral valve calcium deposits may appear that provoke severe stenosis.
  • addition, the causes of this disease may be ionizing radiation and certain medications (eg, drugs wormwood, are used in the treatment of migraine).


anatomical shape of the mitral valve stenosis:

  • «Fish mouth" - stenosis of the funnel-shaped.
  • stenosis as a "business suit loop".
  • stenosis with double narrowing.

The magnitude of the restriction opening of the mitral valve can be of these types:

  • Minimum stenosis.
  • sharp stenosis - the total area of ​​the mitral orifice is less than 0.5 cm Blocks.
  • stenosis - orifice area is from 0.5 to 1 cm Blocks.
  • moderate stenosis - mitral orifice area - from 1 to 1.5 cm Blocks.
  • than 1.5 cm. Blocks.

stages of mitral stenosis:

  • The first stage is called full compensation.This stage is not accompanied by symptomatic, but some signs of an objective study of the disease can be identified.
  • The second stage is characterized by severe symptoms of mitral stenosis that occur during exercise.Also, at this stage, there may be signs of pulmonary hypertension.
  • third stage of mitral stenosis accompanied by stagnation in the large and small circles of blood circulation, a significant increase in CVP (central venous pressure), increased heart and liver.
  • fourth stage - is expressed circulatory failure.Patients noted a serious stagnation in the pulmonary circulation, consolidation and enlargement of the liver, peripheral edema, ascites.Conservative therapy may improve the patient's condition.
  • fifth stage of mitral stenosis is called end-stage dystrophic circulatory failure.It is characterized by irreversible changes in the internal organs.Patients with such stage mitral stenosis observed edema, ascites, cirrhosis, dyspnea at rest and cardiomegaly.Conservative treatment does not improve.

clinical picture of mitral valve stenosis

Mild mitral stenosis for a long period of time marked clinical manifestations may not occur.However, deterioration of health may be sudden.

most typical and common symptoms of mitral stenosis are disruptions of the heart, heart palpitations and shortness of breath.The manifestation of these complaints indicates the presence of tissue hypoxia circular that accompanies this vice.

heartbeat and shortness of breath at the beginning occur when significant physical loads, and then - with minimal effort, and finally - in peace and quiet (at the critical degree of mitral stenosis).Very often, patients have a cough - a manifestation of chronic bronchitis stagnant forms.Hemoptysis can be observed in patients with severe pulmonary congestion.

Typically, patients complain of general weakness, pain in the heart, fatigue and hoarseness (enlarged left atrium compresses the left recurrent laryngeal nerve).

Even the symptoms of mitral stenosis include: redness of the cheeks, akrotsianoz, pale skin and nasolabial triangle, cyanosis of the lips, swelling and throbbing neck veins, heart hump (deformity of the chest), and tachycardia.

Also, there are other symptoms of mitral stenosis, which can identify only a doctor-specialist: pulmonary congestion, pulmonary hypertension, heart murmurs, blood clots, and arrhythmias (heart rhythm disturbance).

By cardiologist should be handled in the case of observing the following symptoms:

  • Pain or discomfort in the chest.
  • Frequent respiratory diseases such as bronchitis.
  • swelling in the legs.
  • Shortness of breath during physical exertion or when lying down.
  • palpitations.
  • Fatigue.
  • Severe cough that is accompanied by hemoptysis.

Complications of the disease

In the absence of adequate treatment of mitral stenosis leads to the following complications:

  • Heart failure (abnormal condition of the body in which the heart muscle is so weak that pumps blood to the body is weak and inadequate).This complication occurs when severe mitral stenosis.
  • Atrial Fibrillation.The expansion of the left atrium (with mitral valve stenosis) leads to arrhythmia.In this state, the contraction of the left atrium occurs in a chaotic manner.
  • Expansion heart.The narrowing of the mitral valve is accompanied by an overflow of blood of the left atrium, then, and right heart chambers.
  • thrombosis.Lack of proper treatment of mitral stenosis leads to the formation of blood clots in the atrial cavity.Blood clots by the blood stream, may be in different parts of the body, causing serious problems.
  • Stagnation of blood in the lungs.Pulmonary edema, in which the accumulation of plasma occurs in the alveoli, accompanied by shortness of breath and cough with hemoptysis.

treatment of mitral stenosis

treatment of narrowing of the mitral valve can be conservative and surgical.Conservative treatment of mitral stenosis can not cure vice, but makes it possible to cure some of the complications of this disease (heart failure, pulmonary edema, arrhythmia and so on.).

As for surgery, it is in stenosis of the mitral valve is not always necessary.If the restriction of minimum and expressed symptoms of mitral stenosis is not observed, the doctor-patient cardiologist appoints permanent control of the heart condition.

Because of drugs used: anticoagulants (blood thinners), diuretics (for withdrawal of excess fluid from the body), antiarrhythmic drugs (in the presence of an arrhythmia) and antibiotics.

critical degree of mitral stenosis, usually requires surgical treatment.In such cases, it may be used as minimally invasive intervention (balloon valvuloplasty) or traditional (open surgery).The main advantages of minimally invasive techniques are the low level of trauma and easier portability.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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