Myoclonus - types , causes, symptoms, treatments


1. reasons myoclonus

2. symptoms

3. Treatment myoclonus

myoclonus called involuntary irregular muscle contractions that may appear as the motionand during rest.Such reductions occur in many people, to put it as a wince while falling asleep or fright.In this case, they are not considered a serious disease and if there is any associated symptoms of a disease are recognized norm.

myoclonus may occur at any age.Muscle cramps sometimes occur as a reaction to the stimulus (light, color, sound, sudden touch, etc.) are sometimes spontaneous, not caused by some external factors.Then, when the muscle contractions are sudden and occur quite often, there is reason to suspect the presence of a disease.As a disease, myoclonus refers to the class of hyperkinesis.

reasons myoclonus

The most common causes of the disease are the various lesions of the cerebral cortex.Patchy muscle twitches caused by these lesions, called cortical myoclonia.It occurs when:

  • encephalitis;
  • Epilepsy;
  • Diffuse brain injury (leukodystrophy, amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, etc.);
  • brain injury;
  • cerebrovascular disorders;
  • Diseases Ramsay Junta;
  • scattered and tuberous sclerosis;
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease;
  • -Lundborg Disease Unferrihta;
  • uremia;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • tumors;
  • Hypoglycemia;
  • hyponatremia;
  • Hypoxia;
  • decompression sickness;
  • heat stroke;
  • electric shock.

The disease is often caused by hereditary factors, taking some drugs, hepatic or renal insufficiency, typical for elderly degerativnye changes the brain, intoxication, toxoplasmosis.

Disposable convulsive muscle contractions occur when the alarm state, excessive physical exertion, hiccups.Sometimes they appear in infants during feeding.Often, these spasms are not a negative character and there are healthy people.

Symptoms myoclonus

disease can be attributed to the disease, if cramps occur frequently and are accompanied by a general deterioration of mental and physical condition of the person.Then, when the cramps are caused by disease, they are usually absent during sleep, increasing with stress and emotional outburst during wakefulness.

As for cortical myoclonus, its symptoms are characterized by a very fast twitch muscles, it feels like an electric shock.The reduction can be extended to all muscles of the body or be localized in individual muscle groups.

Cortical myoclonus is not always accompanied by a pronounced jerky movements.In some cases, it appears as a chaotic twitching of various muscle areas and a motor causes a slight effect, or does not cause it at all.In these cases, myoclonus is most often seen in the lungs spasm of facial muscles, the muscles of the soft palate and tongue, which often causes a brief disturbance of speech.

Strong neck muscles twitching, head and extremities usually appear under the form of epileptic disease.They can be combined with seizures.The most extensive group of muscle cramps covered with metabolic causes.

it looks like a rhythmic trembling of the body at an early stage of the disease.In the later stages of the disease sometimes experience a sudden flexion of hands or feet.In general, when this kind of spontaneous myoclonus and quite strong reduction occur simultaneously in all areas of the body, sometimes grabbing the diaphragm.

In general, the disease is divided into the following types:

  • Velopalatinnaya sudden rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the pharynx, the soft palate, tongue);
  • action myoclonus (muscle cramps any group arising from any movements)
  • Postural (muscle spasms all sites that appear when trying to keep a normal posture);
  • Rhythmic (undulating rhythmic contraction of certain muscle groups).

Treatment myoclonus

myoclonus Treatment depends on the type and the cause of the disease.Each type of convulsive muscle contractions requires special therapeutic approach.

Overall, myoclonus treatment begins with correcting the disorder causing it.Then appointed medications such as clonazepam, carbamazepine, valproic acid drugs, medications nootropic series tiaprid.They entered perroralno or intramuscularly.

addition, used in treating myoclonus corticosteroids benzodiazepine agents obzidan, neuroleptics.If the muscle contractions are accompanied by seizures, complex therapy include anticonvulsants.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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