1. miliary tuberculosis
2. disease diagnosis
miliary tuberculosis is a hematogenous, almost always generalized form of tuberculosis, which is characterized by a thick uniform precipitation of very small tuberculoushillocks in the lungs and other organs.
The cause of the disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT), and infection of the disease occurs through airborne droplets.
Miliary tuberculosis is caused by the spread of blood with the current large number of ILO on the weakening of human immunity.
This disease can be acute and chronic forms.In the first case, it takes an extremely hard and has a symptomatic.Chronic forms of the disease are characterized by undulating course with periods of exacerbation and remission.
miliary tuberculosis can be quite vague symptoms that are difficult to interpret correctly.These signs include:
There may be a change in the bon
often pathological process foci are productive, but sometimes occur and caseous-necrotic changes.Before the appearance of lesions usually occurs hyperergic reaction capillaries, as well as develop lymphangitis and vasculitis.
Experts identify acute tuberculous sepsis and acute miliary tuberculosis.
In the first case there is a malignant course and death during the first 2-3 weeks of the disease.For acute tuberculous sepsis characterized by high body temperature, erased cerebral symptoms and dyspeptic disorders.With the help of X-ray examination in the light detected only increased pulmonary pattern, but no sputum Office.In addition, at this dangerous disease occurs anergy passive (negative reaction to the Mantoux test).At autopsy show necrotic lesions with no evidence of specific inflammation in the internal organs.In smears from the necrotic foci detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Unlike acute tuberculous sepsis, acute miliary tuberculosis is also a very dangerous disease with a distinct clinical picture.Still, it is less dangerous, but the symptoms usually depend on the localization of the pathological process.
Some patients with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis observed a pronounced respiratory failure symptoms with symptoms of shortness of breath, severe intoxication, and cyanosis (bluish skin, lips and nails) due to high body temperature.
In the case of a limited miliary tuberculosis eruption of tubercles occurs only in the tops and subclavian areas of the lungs.This variant of the disease is more typical for the primary infection period and may be asymptomatic or have symptoms of dry cough, a little weakness, loss of appetite, and low grade fever.
radiographic examination results show the presence of small pockets of equal size, which are arranged symmetrically to approach and supraclavicular areas, mainly in the lung cortical layers.Typically, no MBT in sputum and insignificant changes in hemogram.With regard to the reaction to the Mantoux test, then it is either normergicheskaya or hyperergic.Sometimes there is a spontaneous recovery.
Some patients can develop extensive acute miliary tuberculosis.In this case, patients have signs of the disease such as malaise, headache, dyspepsia, low-grade body temperature.For some time, their condition is deteriorating rapidly, and manifest symptoms such as tachycardia, increasing shortness of breath, jaundice of the skin, a strong increase in body temperature (up to 39-40 degrees).Cough in most patients is dry and hoarse with the release of a small amount of mucous expectoration.
X-ray picture of this form of the disease especially in the early days of different diffuse decrease in transparency of the lung fields, and then there are pockets of infection of up to millet grain.The sputum is often fixed by the Office also vary parameters of blood.With regard to the reaction to the Mantoux test, she first normergicheskaya or hyperergic, but becomes negative in the process of developing the disease.In addition, with extensive acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis protein in the urine is determined.If this disease is not diagnosed in advance and begin timely treatment, the high probability of death.
disease reveal miliary tuberculosis is difficult, because the motley clinical symptoms of the disease, the variety of its forms, as well as the serious condition of the patient significantly hamper timely diagnosis.Doctors - TB doctors in the survey, as a rule, carefully examine history and purposefully seeking tuberculosis lesions (such as pulmonary, and extrapulmonary).
Compulsory held X-ray examination.And if in the lungs of the patient observed a sister thick small focal dissemination, this may indicate the presence of miliary pulmonary tuberculosis.
is important to note that the study of sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a little information.The reaction to the Mantoux test can be negative as a result of decrease in the immune response.In doubtful cases, a specialist may prescribe chemotherapy trial.
TB treatment usually includes a few (4-5) antimicrobials.In addition, prescribed drugs to enhance immunity, physiotherapy and breathing exercises.The course of treatment lasting and can last for about a year.According to testimony carried out surgery - lung resection (complete or partial removal of the affected organ pathological process).
Today miliary tuberculosis ceased to have such a high mortality rate, as in the past, but, nevertheless, it remains a very dangerous disease.At the same time in the early diagnosis and timely treatment is started, it is completely curable.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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