Microcephaly - forms, causes , treatment methods


1. forms and causes of microcephaly brain

2. Symptoms of the disease

3. Treatment microcephaly children

microcephaly - an abnormal development of the brain, which isto reduce its size, which result - abnormally small brain size of the head.

forms and causes of brain microcephaly

There are two forms of microcephaly in children: primary and secondary.Primary microcephaly most often caused by genetic disorders, as well as a result of the adverse factors described below in the first and early second trimester of pregnancy.

diagnosis of microcephaly secondary form of the brain suggests a more serious condition of the child, very often we are talking about cerebral palsy.Secondary microcephaly can be caused by factors listed below in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, or during childbirth, or during the first months of baby's life.

The most common factors that can trigger the occurrence of brain microcephaly, include:

  • intoxication of the fetus, which came as a r
    esult of the influence of alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, who abuse the expectant mother in the first months of pregnancy
  • transferred pregnant woman infectious diseases.Often the cause of microcephaly baby is toxoplasmosis, a woman who sometimes unknowingly, had been ill during pregnancy
  • intrauterine infection of the fetus: rubella, measles, mumps, cytomegalovirus, herpes, etc.
  • disruptions to the endocrine future mother system
  • teratogenic effects of certain medications (such as antibiotics)
  • serious toxic poisoning of pregnant women
  • injury to a child during birth (birth injuries)
  • poor environmental conditions, radiation
  • genetic disorders.

Very often, a seemingly healthy parents born sick child.However, neither the parents nor the doctors can not find the cause of microcephaly at the kid.


Externally disease microcephaly brain, usually not difficult to learn, especially lung disease is defined in children older than one year.In patients with normal development of children face there is a significant underdevelopment of the brain of the head.As children get older more and more clearly defined by the external signs of microcephaly, his face becomes large, the forehead more sloping head with little.In severe cases, it leans his forehead so that the tip of the nose to the top of the forehead, you can draw a straight line, contact with the skin at all points.

brain microcephaly can be suspected in newborn head circumference becomes less than 34 cm, but, nevertheless, it is not a major factor in making a diagnosis.Often, a small head of a baby just a characteristic, inherited from someone from relatives.

Another indicator that the physician has in the hospital - chest circumference of newborn cells.In the presence of microcephaly chest circumference greater than the circumference of the head, a healthy child is the opposite.

Thus, the following signs of microcephaly children:

  • newborn baby's head circumference on average 24-30 cm, ie below the norm for two and even three sigmalnyh deviation
  • fontanelle the child is completely closed or has a small size
  • if at the moment of birth fontanelle has not closed, it is closed very quickly, within
  • one month the baby narrow sloping forehead, prominent brow ridges and protruding ears
  • his head was disproportionate, the front part of the development of normal, whileas part of the brain abnormally low
  • muscular dystonia, manifesting itself in the low muscle tone
  • height and weight of the child is considerably lower
  • rules uncoordinated
  • sometimes manifests itself
  • convulsions in most children there is a squint.

patients microcephaly children are easily excitable, often hyperactive, or vice versa sluggish, inactive and apathetic.They later begin to keep his head up, roll over, sit, crawl and walk.The brain of these children is characterized by significant developmental disabilities, and its weight is less than 600 grams.

People-microcephaly live not long, not more than 30 years.On average, their life expectancy is 15 years.

Depending on the degree of reduction of the brain in children with microcephaly manifests varying degrees of mental retardation.Microcephaly is very different, each case is not similar to another.The child may have a mild form of imbecility (the average degree of intellectual underdevelopment) or deeper form of idiocy (the most severe degree of mental retardation).

Treatment microcephaly children

Anyway microcephaly - an incurable disease, to renew the natural activity of the brain is impossible, but it can and must be substantially correct.

By treating brain microcephaly refers to a set of measures aimed at the physical and intellectual development of a child for the purpose of its maximum social adaptation.

microcephaly treatment in children is carried out in three directions:

1. Drug therapy, the purpose of which - the stimulation of metabolic processes in the brain.If necessary, also shows sedatives, anticonvulsants, dehydration drugs.

2. Physical therapy, massage, physiotherapy.

3. Therapeutic measures aimed at the intellectual development of the child.Today there are special facilities (gardens, orphanages) for children with microcephaly and other lesions of the central nervous system.You can also use the services of speech pathologists, speech pathologist.

microcephaly treatment in its original form, in some cases very successful.When properly chosen therapy a child will not be completely healthy, but it can carry a simplified social life.

With the secondary form of the disease cases are worse.Very often, in spite of the persistent microcephaly treatment, sick babies are not able to master even the basic skills (holding head, rolling over, sitting).

However, in any form of the child's brain microcephaly parents' actions should be directed to his mental and physical development.First, please be patient, this feature is very necessary in the treatment of microcephaly.Secondly, be engaged with the baby water therapy, doing exercises with him developing memory, attention, thought, sensation, do not get tired at all times to repeat the name of the surroundings, let the baby drink decoctions of wild rose, let eats peanuts and cabbage.

Do not be ashamed of your child, you are the closest person to him, more importantly, what needs baby - your love and patience.As practice shows, a lot of children, which doctors initially put the sentence "plant" because of the loving and patient parents became almost full-fledged members of society.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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