Myeloma - Causes, symptoms , prognosis, treatment of patients


1. development mechanism and causes of myeloma

2. symptoms

3. Diagnosis and treatment of myeloma

4. forecast

Myeloma(multiple myeloma, myeloma) - a malignant tumor that sprout from the blood plasma.The most frequent disease manifest deterioration of bone structure.

myeloma usually occurs in older people.More common in men than women.

development mechanism and causes of myeloma

Normal plasma cells help to provide immunity.Protective system comprises several human cell types to fight infection.The main ones are lymphocytes which are divided into cells, and T. The B-cell function is to protect against pathogenic bacteria, the function of T cells - providing combating viruses.In the case where the body to attack the infection, there is a transformation of B cells into plasma.They then produce specific antibodies, which help destroy bacteria.

If a failure occurs, starts to grow uncontrollably number of plasma cells.The result often is formed myeloma tumors.

appearance of such tumors is accompanied by a lesion of the bone marrow.At the same time they appear in different places, which gave the name of the disease, "multiple myeloma".Eventually

tumor cells replace bone marrow cells.As a result of this reduced level of red blood cells, platelets.A person develops anemia, decreased immunity.This contributes to an aggravation of chronic diseases, the difficulty of convalescence and other manifestations of reducing the body's defenses.

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known.According to statistics, the factors that increase the risk of this disease:

  • age over 40 years;number of younger patients is only about 1% of all cases;
  • radiative forcing;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • race;Myeloma is more common in African-American representatives;
  • professional activity, which is associated with the mining and petroleum industry;
  • DNA pathological disorders.


Onset is usually asymptomatic.With further development of myeloma appear nonspecific symptoms - weakness, fatigue, unsteadiness of gait, decreased physical activity, less loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, vomiting.

main symptom of myeloma is bone pain.In most cases, the pain tends to increase with time, it responds poorly to analgesics anesthesia.Often comes to the fore the pain in the lumbar and dorsal spine.

With further development of myeloma occurs settling of the vertebral bodies, resulting in a reduced height of a few centimeters.

Because bone resorption is increased in the blood calcium level.This increases the amount of urine and, as a result, dehydration.In addition, elevated levels of calcium is the cause of frequent nausea and vomiting in patients with myeloma.

is a violation of maturation of red blood cells during the development of malignant cells.There are the following myeloma symptoms - fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, headache.

Many patients suffering from myeloma is often exacerbated by infectious diseases, most often bacterial.In the early stages of the disease is largely airways disease.At a later stage - urinary tract infections.

Development myeloma leads to a deficiency of platelets.As a result, there is one more symptom of myeloma - increased bleeding.In humans, there are frequent nosebleeds, women, moreover, - enhanced menstrual bleeding.

Enough myeloma patients rarely have symptoms of pathological changes in the nervous system.If the damage to the extremities of long nerves is marked burning pain and loss of sensation in the hands and feet.In some cases, possible paralysis, loss of sensation in the lower body, incontinence.

Diagnosis and treatment of myeloma

Diagnosis of the disease begins with the doctor and collect history.After that myeloma patients are assigned special studies:

  • general and biochemical blood tests;
  • X-ray examination - designate in order to identify changes in the bones;
  • biopsy of bone marrow - makes it possible to identify abnormal cells replace normal;
  • immunoassays;
  • magnetic resonance or computed tomography - is assigned to identify the foci of tumors in tissues.

method of treating myeloma is selected depending on the stage of the disease, the degree of malignancy aggressiveness.

When indolent multiple myeloma is usually not carried out special treatment.The patient is under constant medical supervision.Therapy is started by activating the disease.

main myeloma treatment - chemotherapy.It is medical treatment by combining several chemotherapy drugs simultaneously.For a more effective operation of chemotherapy, removal of some side effects to the patient is prescribed hormonal agents.In addition, the immune therapy is successfully used to increase the period of remission.Additionally

in treating myeloma is irradiated tumor foci, special methods of influencing the malignant plasma cells in particular plasmapheresis.

case of insufficient effectiveness of chemotherapy used transplantation of blood stem cells or bone marrow.Such transplants often gives good results in the most severe cases of the disease.

adjunctive treatment of myeloma is a surgical intervention.The operation is necessary in the case of large tumors, while squeezing the tumor major vessels or nerves, to fix the fragile bones.

For local bone destruction is often used radiotherapy.


prognosis of myeloma depends on the stage at which the disease is detected, as is actively developing a malignant process, a general condition of the patient.

This disease refers to diseases with a high degree of malignancy.

At the same time, the prognosis in myeloma indolent forms quite favorable.

According to medical statistics, the survival of patients who began treatment at the first stage of the disease is about 50% within five years.

significantly worse prognosis in myeloma third stage.In this case, the survival rate of only 15% for five years.

On average, the modern treatment of the disease, the patient's life can be extended by four years.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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