Skin Melanoma - signs , symptoms, stage treatment


1. causes of disease

2. Symptoms of melanoma skin

3. stages of the disease

4. Treatment of melanoma

Melanoma - thismalignant tumor that develops from melanocytes (cells that produce the pigment of the skin tanning).This disease - one of the most dangerous types of skin cancer.However, if adequate treatment promptly initiated melanoma prognosis in most cases favorable.Most often

melanoma skin begins to develop in the cells having a high content of melanin, for example, in moles.It is based on a very active melanocytes cells.They constantly fall, gradually displacing other skin cells.Melanocytes are easy enough to spread throughout the body.Even one such cell, once in any body, settled there and gives multiple metastases.

causes of disease

main cause of melanoma called excess ultraviolet radiation.His sources - direct sunlight - is harmful for everyone.But they are especially dangerous for fair-skinned people with freckles on his face.Excessive sun exposure is the ma

in cause of melanoma in the southern countries.

Another factor that provokes the formation of melanoma is the mole injury.Statistics confirm that 42% of cases are associated with accidental or intentional trauma moles.

Experts call another factor contributing to the regeneration of normal mole into a malignant tumor - hormonal changes in the body during puberty, pregnancy or menopause in women.

Another cause of melanoma is the presence of a person dysplastic nevi - pigmented spots fuzzy shapes that rise above the surface of the skin.They are regarded as precursors of malignant tumors and occur in 30% of patients.

Symptoms of melanoma

There are three basic types of melanomas:

1. Surface spreading.The most common type of cancers.Usually it grows from a birthmark for a few years, but quickly transformed for 1-2 months.It occurs most often in middle-aged people, with women is localized on the legs, men - on the back.The symptoms of this type of melanoma:

  • small size of the tumor;
  • irregular shape with jagged edges;
  • coloring of different shades, but most often prevails brown or dark brown color with bluish highlights.

Another symptom of this type of melanoma can manifest itself in the form of bleeding.Prognosis is usually favorable.

2. knots.Suffice aggressive type of melanoma that occurs in 15-30% of patients.Develops the elderly to visually intact skin.The main symptom of this type of melanoma - tumor as a dark blue node.Such malignant tumors grow rapidly, while hitting the nearby layers of the skin.Prediction is very rarely favorable.

3. Lentigo-melanoma.The tumor occurs in 5-10% of patients older and older.The symptoms of melanoma of the skin of the variety are nodules in the form of spots of light brown, dark brown, or dark blue, having a diameter of 1.5 mm to 3 mm.Typically, the tumor is localized on the face, neck, back of hands, feet and develop for a long time, more than 20 years.Prognosis is usually favorable.

main symptoms of melanoma - burning or itching of the primary tumor.In addition, the tumor may bleed or get wet, it expands on the plane and on the skin.

skin lesions are of different size, shape, may have a different surface, color, consistency, so signs of melanoma are presented fairly extensive list of features.

size.. In the early stages of tumor size is not more than 1-2 cm At later stages often formed large tumor nodules - a sign of melanoma.

form.The tumor may be oval, round or irregular shape.It often takes the form of a flat pigment spots can be a little bulge, buy a mushroom shape, located on a wide basis or on the stem.Usually found a single tumor.Beside her additional pockets can be formed.A sign of melanoma is the location of these lesions.They may be arranged alternately with visually healthy skin or to merge with the primary tumor.

surface.The initial symptom of melanoma - shiny, smooth, mirror surface.Later on the surface there are marked signs of melanoma as irregularities, ulcerations, contact bleeding.

Consistency.Melanoma can have a different consistency - a tough, dense, soft.Often a sign of melanoma is different texture areas of the tumor.

Painting.Such a sign of melanoma, as the coloring is not always decisive in the diagnosis, since it depends on the amount of melanin.Usually dominated by brown, dark blue, dark brown color.There are also amelanotic melanoma.Pigmentation tumor is a uniform and non-uniform.

The earliest signs of melanoma, is expressed in the malignant transformation of a nevus, consider it a growth plane asymmetry edges, peeling surface discoloration, the occurrence of itching and burning.

stages of the disease are the following

stage melanoma:

  • zero stage melanoma - tumor develops in the outer cell layer, not grow in deep tissues;
  • first stage melanoma - tumor thickness greater than 1 mm, the surface can be covered with ulcerations;or swelling of up to 2 mm thick, does not affect the regional lymph nodes;
  • second stage melanoma - tumor thickness of 1-2 mm has sores on the surface;tumor or thicker than 2 mm, the surface may be ulcerated not affected lymph nodes;
  • third stage melanoma - tumor invades nearby tissues, lymph nodes;
  • fourth stage melanoma - tumor extends not only to nearby organs and lymph nodes, but also on the long sections of organs and tissues.

Treatment of melanoma

Choosing a method of treating melanoma depends on the phase of the disease.At the initial stage melanoma is usually surgical removal of a malignant formation.If the tumor has spread to nearby tissue and lymph nodes, additional radiation treatments used melanoma.When running the tumor used combination therapy.

Surgical treatment of melanoma is most commonly used in all stages of the disease.In the initial stage of the treatment is limited to surgical removal of the tumor.In the case of penetration of the tumor to lymph nodes are also removed.

Treatment of melanoma by radiation therapy is often used after surgery, when the tumor has spread to many lymph nodes.If metastases are found in many places, this method is used, as an independent.

chemotherapy used in the treatment of melanoma fourth step in the presence of multiple tumor metastasis.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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