Mesothelioma is a malignant tumor that affects the tissue lining the abdominal cavity, heart, thorax. This tissue is called mesothelium, hence the name of the disease.
Pleural mesothelioma is found in most cases of this disease. The proportion of peritoneal mesothelioma accounts for about 10-20% of cases of the disease. The malignant tumor of the tissue of the cardiac sac( pericardium) is diagnosed quite rarely.
The cause of the development of the disease is a random genetic mutation, as a result of which healthy cells turn into malignant ones. Such cells reproduce uncontrollably, forming a malignant tumor.
The exact cause of mesothelioma is unknown. There are certain factors that provoke its development. Among them, first of all, they indicate a hereditary predisposition of the disease. Mesothelioma also develops in people who for a long time have contact with a mineral with erionite or with asbestos. Many experts note the risk of increased development of a malignant tumor in smokers with experi
Mesothelioma is found in people of different ages. Men suffer from this disease much more often than women.
Malignant pleural effusion is a rare disease. Most often occurs in men after forty years. The main factor contributing to the development of mesothelioma is called contact with asbestos. The most dangerous is "blue asbestos".Straight narrow fibers of this building material simply enough get on a lymphatic current in a subpleural space and a pulmonary parenchyma( air lung tissue of lungs).
Pleural mesothelioma develops gradually, the first symptoms appear 20-30 years after exposure to a chemical carcinogen. In addition to asbestos, silicates, liquid paraffin, and beryllium can contribute to the development of a malignant tumor. Sometimes mesothelioma develops 20-30 years after the application of radiation therapy in the treatment of lymphogranulomatosis. Many experts point to the genetic predisposition and viral nature of the disease.
Pleural mesothelioma develops from the integumentary epithelium. Most often, the tumor process captures the pleura, infiltrating it( diffuse form).In the case where the pleural cavity remains free, it accumulates hemorrhagic( accompanied by a hemorrhage) or serous-fibrinous exudate. Sometimes a cancerous tumor grows as a knot( nodular form) in a certain part of the pleura.
In 96.5% of cases, this tumor metastasizes into regional lymph nodes. In 75% of diseases metastases are captured by the second lung and pleura. Hematogenous( through the blood) metastases are much less common.
Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma in the early stages are dry cough and chest pain. With the development of the disease in the pleural cavity accumulates exudate, as a result of which the lung is squeezed and dyspnea appears. Most patients have fever, symptoms of osteoarthropathy( bone tissue damage).The course of mesothelioma is quite fast. Tumor metastases affect the pleura, mediastinum, certain tissues and organs.
The choice of tactics for treating this type of mesothelioma depends on the stage of the disease, the general condition of the patient. Given the rarity of such a disease, therapy is best conducted in specialized medical institutions.
Mesothelioma develops very quickly, it is diagnosed in severe stages. Surgical treatment is usually used to eliminate or reduce the pain and discomfort that is caused by the growth of the tumor.
One type of surgical intervention is pleuroectomy or decortication. When it is carried out, the patient is removed from the pleura, as a result of which the fluid does not accumulate, and pain decreases. A common method of treating mesothelioma is thoracocentesis. To facilitate the patient's condition from the pleural cavity, use a special needle to remove the liquid.
In very rare cases, the patient is removed from the pleura, diaphragm, lung and pericardium on the side of the lesion. This is due to the fact that the favorable forecast after carrying out such an operation increases insignificantly.
A common method of treating mesothelioma is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs are administered intravenously and intrapleural. Depending on the stage of development of the disease, chemotherapy is the main or auxiliary method of therapy.
Radiation therapy is used in the treatment of this disease quite often. It can be external irradiation of the body or internal( radioactive material is led to the tumor).Often, this type of therapy is performed to alleviate the symptoms caused by the growth of a malignant tumor.
The prognosis for pleural mesothelioma is very unfavorable.
The peritoneal cancer develops from the epithelial cells of the abdominal cavity.
As in the case of a pleural tumor, the cause of the development of a tumor of this species is called prolonged contact with asbestos, paraffin, silicates. In addition, the possible development of the disease as a result of the action of ionizing radiation, viruses. An important role is assigned to the hereditary factor.
Mesothelioma of the peritoneum is diffuse or nodular. Diffuse form is characterized by the spread of malignant process along the entire surface of the peritoneum. With the nodular form, the tumor develops in the form of a node that grows in a certain area of the peritoneum. More malignant is the diffuse form of the disease. In addition, it accounts for up to 75% of all cases of the disease.
The initial symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include pain and discomfort in the abdominal cavity, which do not have a clear localization. The patient suffers from loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, alternating constipation and diarrhea. With further course of the disease, exudate accumulates in the abdominal cavity, as a result, the person develops swelling, shortness of breath, and increases the abdomen. Sometimes there is partial intestinal obstruction.
Treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma is complicated by the fact that the disease is usually found in later stages of development. Cancer cells spread rapidly enough by implantation, contact, lymphogenesis. Metastasis of mesothelioma penetrates into regional lymph nodes, intestines, liver, lungs, heart, bone marrow, brain.
The most successful method of treating nodular mesothelioma is radical surgery, during which the tumor is removed.
Often patients are removed aspartic fluid from the abdominal cavity with the help of special devices.
In the diffuse form, mesothelioma treatment of this type provides for the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs are administered intravenously and intraperitoneally( directly into the tumor in the abdominal cavity).
Radiation therapy is used as an independent treatment or as an auxiliary method.
1. Pleural Mesothelioma
2. Peritoneal Mesothelioma
This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.
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