Malaria - the pathogen , symptoms , treatment, prevention


1. Causes

2. Symptoms of malaria

3. Treatment of malaria

4. Preventive measures

There are several names of malaria -a "swamp fever" or "paroxysmal malaria", but they define an acute infectious disease, the cause of which are several species of protozoa of the genus Plasmodium.Transmission of the disease is carried by the bite of a mosquito.


As mentioned above, the pathogens of malaria are the simplest kind of parasites.

are parasitic effects in relation to man have 4 types of data are simple:

- Plasmodium vivax (malaria parasite forms a three-day);

- P. Malariae (the causative agent of malaria, four-form);

- P. Falciparum (malaria parasite tropical forms);

- P. Ovale (three-day malaria parasite, occurring in a particular form).

The most common of these is P. vivax.

Symptoms of malaria

Depending on the type of pathogen and related symptoms, malaria is divided into 4 forms.

1. The three-day malaria

The incubation period for this form of the di

sease is between 3 weeks to 6-14 months.

In this case, before the initial attack is very rarely observed bright symptoms of malaria.Usually they precede and relapses appear as general malaise / weakness, fever, headache and anorexia.

duration of prodromal period (after incubation, the disease) is usually from 1 to 5 days.

Thereafter, allocated three phases of malaria symptoms are worse, this is the stage of chill, heat stage, sweat stage.In a fit of the skin becomes dry and rough to the touch, and the body temperature reaches 40-41 ° C.Besides enhanced headache, vomiting, and there is pain in the joints / lumbar region, possible delirium and confusion.attack duration can be 6-10 hours, they usually occur in the morning and afternoon.After 2-3 attacks liver and spleen were greatly increased in size.

2. The four-day malaria

duration of the incubation period is 3-6 weeks, is acute with the onset of disease.Frequency of fever was 2 days, and its average duration of 13 hours.Symptoms of malaria four-day form - fever, head / muscle / joint pain, in some cases, vomiting.

anemia development occurs in 2 weeks after the onset of the disease.Of particular danger this form of the disease presents for the children.

3. Tropical malaria

This form is most severe among others, the incubation period in this case is only 8-16 days.

When lowered immune protection are observed prodromal symptoms of malaria, the duration of which can be several hours or several days.Tropical malaria usually begins with a sudden rise in body temperature, febrile seizures begin with a fever (0.5-1 hour), and then starts a fever (12 hours), which is replaced by mild sweating.

Among the symptoms observed coughing, pain in Gol, runny nose, in the future may cause herpetic lesions on the lips / nose wings.

4. The three-day malaria particular form

In this form of symptoms similar to three days, but the duration of the incubation period, it can be from 2 months to 2 years.Febrile seizures usually occur in the evening, which is another difference from the other forms of malaria.

This form is characterized by a mild course, the body temperature is not as high, but less pronounced chills.

In the absence of treatment may relapse 1-3, at intervals of 2 weeks to 7 months.

Treatment of malaria

The most common drugs used in malaria are chloroquine, quinacrine hydrochloride (atabrin / quinacrine), quinine and mefloquine.

The drugs used in the treatment of malaria is aimed at preventing attacks, rapid relief of syndromes in the onset of seizures and total destruction of the pathogen.

When planning travel in dangerous areas, it is recommended to carry out regular intake of antimalarials, one of them is chloroquine.

This preparation is usually administered in the following way: during the first day 10 mg / kg and then after 6 hours even 5 mg / kg, in the 2nd and 3rd day once a day to 5 mg / kg.The total rate is 25 mg / kg.

the treatment of malaria, acute manifestations appointed gematotsidy.Quinine

assigned for the treatment of malaria is received 10 mg / kg on the first day (twice with an interval of 8 hours) in the next 7-10 days once daily at the same dosage.In the case of oral intake is not possible (vomiting), the first dose is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, in compliance with certain precautions.

After 12 hours of taking quinine, mefloquine appointed single dose (for adults 15 mg / kg, children less dosage).

Intravenous quinine is recommended for the treatment of tropical malaria with severe forms.The drug is introduced within 4 hours after IV using 5% glucose solution.With the development of acute renal failure, the daily dose should not exceed 10 mg / kg.This therapy is carried out while the patient is out of the grave condition, then assigned to oral ingestion.

Preventive measures

Prevention of malaria in the first place based on the destruction of pathogens, using different means to avoid being bitten.

Currently, not yet invented the vaccine for malaria, but maintained its active scientific research.

used for malaria prevention and drugs, these include some drugs used to treat malaria directly.Dosage in this case should be much lower than for therapy.

It is worth noting that the drugs previously taken to prevent malaria, the treatment becomes less effective.

The oldest means of prevention is quinine, to this end, it was used as early as the 17th century.It is currently only prescribed for the treatment and for the prevention of malaria recommend doxycycline, mefloquine, atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride,.

Drugs that represent various combinations with artimizininom not used in malaria prophylaxis.

Remember that the effect of taking these drugs does not appear immediately, so it is necessary to carry out 1-2 months before visiting dangerous areas.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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