12 August

Radiation injuries - classification , prevention

Contents:

1. Classification

2. Ray skin lesions

3. prevention of radiation injuries

Radiation injuries - is tissue damage resulting from exposure to ionizingradiation, that is, high-energy waves emitted by natural or artificial sources.Such waves are able to penetrate the objects of the environment, thus ionizing them.For tissues damaged by radiation, characterized by short-term (one-time) or long-term exposure.

Radiation damage may occur as a result of radiation therapy, during which the radiation exposed as damaged, and some of the healthy cells of the body.Irradiation provokes the development of the pathological process.Tolerant radiation dose contributes to the self-regression of the pathological process.At the same time remain mild traces of sclerosis and atrophy of tissues (local radiation injury).

Exceeding the permissible doses can cause irreversible radiation damage.Defeat in this case is the development of multiple sclerosis, vascular obliteration, degeneration of nerve f

ibers and atrophy of tissues, accompanied by substitution hyalinized connective tissue.

Radiation injury include clouding of the lens (cataract radiation), radiation skin burns, sterilization, loss of hair (epilation), etc.

That skin is particularly radioporazhaemostyu.Thus the hair follicle cells have the greatest sensitivity to radiation.Radiation injury, resulting from radiation dose of 3-4 Gy, characterized Reden and hair loss in the first 1-3 weeks.Thereafter, the hair growth usually recovers.If the radiation damage radiation dose greater than 7 Gy, the hair falls out completely.

radiation damage is primarily manifested in the skin when exposed to a neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray radiation.Beta radiation has a weak penetrating power and, accordingly, less damaging impact.There are several degrees of severity of these lesions, among which are the suberitematoznuyu (epilation) degree, erythematous, bullous and ulcerative necrotic.

Classification

There is a common classification of radiation damage.According to this classification, radiation injuries are acute and chronic damage.This acute (immediate) radiation damage includes two clinical forms: acute radiation syndrome and acute local radiation damage.Acute radiation syndrome is characterized by an external gamma, beta, neutron irradiation.Acute local radiation injuries occur as a result of contact with the radiation exposure of the skin, mucous membranes and clothing, that is, by contact.

classification of radiation damage also includes chronic radiation injuries, manifested in the form of chronic radiation sickness.Chronic radiation injuries are the result of a long internal or external exposure.

severity of chronic radiation injury depends on the total radiation dose, as well as the physiological characteristics of the damaged organ.

Regional circulatory disorders of the skin, limbs, brain, are the classic symptoms of chronic radiation injury.These disorders manifest as weakness, headache, coldness in the extremities, changes in cardiac, neurological symptoms, asthenic syndrome, as well as irregularities in the digestive tract.

radiation dermatitis - one of the most common forms of local radiation injuries.Uneven radiative forcing by explosions of ammunition or accidents at nuclear power plants is a major cause of development of local radiation damage.

In a domestic environment this form of radiation can occur as a result of radiotherapy of tumor and other diseases.Local radiation injuries usually localized in the front of the thighs, toes, hands and face.

Ray skin lesions

According to the classification of radiation skin lesions are acute and chronic.

acute radiation lesions of the skin may occur as early radiation reactions (erythema, itching, and accompanied by growing for 1-2 days after irradiation at a dose of not less than 3 Gy), and radiation alopecia, which is characterized by hair loss after a 2-4weeks after the radiation dose of not less than 3.75 Gy.Radiation damage to the skin can also occur in the form of acute radiation dermatitis, the main symptoms of which appear within two months after irradiation.From other dermatitis, erythematous lesions form distinguishes purple-bluish color of the skin, hair loss, pain and itching.This form of radiation occurs at a dose of 8-12 Gy.Acute painful dermatitis - another manifestation of radiation skin lesions, which is accompanied by fever, a burning sensation, as well as pronounced pain.This form of radiation is manifested at a dose of at least 12-20 Gy.Erosion after opening the blisters heal slowly, marked atrophy, and is a violation of skin pigmentation.

Acute necrotizing dermatitis develops as a result of radiation damage to the skin at a rate in excess of 25 Gy.In this case the patient observed a strong chills, painful headaches, high fever, weakness.On the skin appear swelling, erythema and blisters, which are formed after the opening slow-healing ulcers.Minor damage to the scars left after the healing of wounds, may trigger the development of tissue necrosis.

According to the classification of radiation damage, distinguish two main forms of chronic skin lesions.

Chronic radiation dermatitis - a form of destruction, in which the developing skin atrophy and dryness.Hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis may develop on the background of the painful cracks, which are also formed on the skin in this form of injury.

Late radiation dermatosis - a form of destruction, which is manifested in the form indurative edema, radiation cancer or late radiation ulcers.Induratum swelling is the result of damage to the small lymphatic vessels and lymph outflow disturbance.There is a dense edema, after the resolution of which may develop atrophy of tissues and telangiectasia.

prevention of radiation injuries

prevention of radiation injuries is based on the use of specific pharmacological agents.Means for prevention of radiation injuries reduce the severity of radiation damage to the body.Thus, drugs used for the prevention of radiation injuries, increase radioresistance of the organism.These include the radioprotective and radioprotective drugs.For prophylaxis is also used drugs that contribute to cupping (Prevention) manifestations of the primary reaction to radiation exposure.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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