Hodgkin - stage , symptoms, treatment


1. Causes

2. Symptoms of Hodgkin's disease

3. Diagnostics

4. Types disease

5. Stage Hodgkin

6. Treatment of Hodgkin's disease

7. lymphogranulomatosis forecast

8. disease prevention

lymphogranulomatosis (the second title of Hodgkin's lymphoma) - refers to a number of cancer diseases and is characterized as a disease of the lymphatic system, in which processin the lymphatic tissue cells can be identified Berezovsky-Sternberg-Reed (scientists who discovered this disease).Diagnosed lymphoma in children and in adults.To a greater extent detected Hodgkin's disease in children adolescents, as well as common in adults aged 20 to 50 years.


disease should be said that the question about the cause of Hodgkin's disease in children and adults still remains unanswered, even though the disease has been studied more in 1832, medical scientists Hodgkin.

According to some experts, the causative agent of disease is Epstein-Barr virus, which is also the causative

agent of infectious mononucleosis.Originators of the virus is often detected in tumor cells.Scientists suggest that this virus causes mutations in lymphocytes and the number starts to increase manifold.

Symptoms of Hodgkin's disease

One of the first symptoms of Hodgkin's disease can be called a significant increase in the amount of lymph nodes.This is particularly noticeable in the neck, groin and armpits.However, there is no pain, which is sure to present in infectious diseases.Antibiotic treatment does not lead to a reduction of lymph node size.Coughing and shortness of breath are the following symptoms of Hodgkin's disease, placed in the chest due to frequent lymph tissue.That is, enlarged lymph nodes implement pressure on the lungs and bronchi.

associated symptoms of Hodgkin's disease are:

  • Fever;
  • weakness and sweating;
  • digestive disorders;
  • weight loss.

flowing the disease may like the manifestation of the above symptoms of Hodgkin's disease, and in the complete absence thereof.

Diagnosis For the diagnosis is necessary to conduct a series of studies, which include medical examination, obtaining a general and biochemical blood tests and a biopsy of an enlarged lymph node with an immunological and morphological study.Naturally, the final decision in the diagnosis will take a microscopic examination of the particles a tumor of lymphoid tissue taken at biopsy.If the lymph node tissue actually detected the tumor cells and special cells Berezovsky-Sternberg-Reed, then we can talk about the presence of Hodgkin's disease.

also a great role in the diagnosis of the disease plays a ray diagnosis, which include X-ray, magnetic resonance and computed tomography.Through this study we can detect the presence of tumors in various parts of the body which are inaccessible physician by visual inspection.

also ray diagnosis is assigned to determine the stage of Hodgkin's disease.

Types disease

indicates the presence of a specific type of the disease is possible only after examining a sample of lymph node tissue at biopsy.So distinguish five types of the disease:

1. nodular sclerosis (most often diagnosed in patients);

2. mixed cell;

3. lymphoid depletion (occurs in less than 50% of cases);

4. nodular with a pronounced predominance of lymphocytes.

Stage Hodgkin

There are 4 stages of Hodgkin's disease, as determined by the prevalence of the disease:

I stage - the location of the tumor in the lymph nodes of the body of one area or in one body.

II stage - marked only the defeat of the lymph nodes in multiple areas of the body from one side of the diaphragm or in conjunction with the affected organ outside of the lymph nodes.

III stage - a tumor struck lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm, spleen may accompany this defeat.The third stage of the disease also concerns a combination of lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm with a single lesion portion or the entire body vnelimfaticheskogo (IIIE step).If a picture is added to the above and spleen damage, then diagnosed stage IIISE.The third stage of the first type III (1) is accompanied by tumor localization in the upper part of the peritoneum, and the second type of the third stage III (2), there is lymph nodes located along the aorta and the pelvis.

IV stage - the tumor spreads, affecting not only the lymph nodes, but also going into the internal organs: kidneys, bone marrow, liver, intestine.

Adding to the number of stages of Hodgkin's disease of the letter "E" indicates the presence of organ and tissue located near the lymph nodes.Increase the letter «S» says the defeat of the spleen.

Treatment of Hodgkin's disease

currently being successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease with a prognosis of full recovery.Everything depends on the stage of the disease and timely treatment of the patient's medical care.On the first and second stages of this disease is treated with almost perfect result, but in the later stages of the correct prescribed treatment conducted in the proper amount, gives good results.

When diagnosing a patient I and stage IIA Hodgkin's disease treatment is prescribed by radiotherapy, chemotherapy also carry out, if necessary.Such a method of treatment of Hodgkin's disease and is effective at stages IIB and IIIA.The later stages of the disease with the spread of the tumor require 6, 8 cycles of chemotherapy.In severe cases, your doctor may prescribe sessions of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Lymphogranulomatosis Forecast

can say that the degree of influence of the disease on the human work and to life in general, to a greater extent depends not on the stage of the disease and the extent of the lesion, and the timely and proper treatment of Hodgkin's disease, which in most casesIt gives excellent results.With modern methods of treatment, almost 60-80 percent of cases of Hodgkin's disease prognosis with proper treatment optimistic.Therefore, the forecast for chlamydia will be positive in the case of careful attention to the health of the patient and the passage of a full course of their treatment, prescribed by a doctor.


disease Unfortunately, to date, effective prevention of the disease to be developed.The more attention is paid to the prevention of relapse, it requires strict adherence to the prescribed treatment of Hodgkin's disease program and execute the desired mode and the rhythm of everyday life.Among the most common causes of repeated manifestations of the disease can be called insolation, pregnancy.After transferring the disease the possibility of pregnancy is permitted after two years from the date of remission.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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