The symptoms and treatment of leptospirosis in humans

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease, caused by different types of leptospira. It is accompanied by fever, general poisoning of the body, damage to the kidneys, liver and nervous system. Heavy forms occur with symptoms of jaundice, meningitis, kidney failure and so on.

Provocators of leptospirosis

The spiral-shaped parasite, which has straightness and rotational mobility, is called leptospira and is the main causative agent of this disease. The habitat must be very warm and humid, which is necessary for their full-fledged existence. This determines the territorial location of provocateurs, which applies to virtually all countries, especially tropical ones.

A person can not be a source of infection. In its quality are different kinds of animals, from the smallest to the largest representatives of the animal world. Infection occurs either in the aquatic environment, or through food. The person is infected by getting the pathogen on the skin or mucous membranes through the water contaminated with

animal feces. You can also get leptospirosis on contact with moist soil, when slaughtering animals, cutting meat or interacting with rodents.

Symptoms of leptospirosis

The incubation period can be completely asymptomatic and take from 4 days to 2 weeks. Then the disease begins to develop rapidly, and there are symptoms of leptospirosis such as:

  • severe chills;
  • critical body temperature;
  • unbearable headaches, lack of sleep and cravings for food, constant thirst;
  • muscle pain in the lumbar, gastrocnemius and femoral parts;
  • restrictions in movement;
  • hyperemic and puffy skin on the face, neck, upper chest;
  • unpleasant sensations of foreign bodies in the eyes and stuff.

Because of the fact that the infection affects almost all organs and systems, there is still a huge number of symptoms of leptospirosis, the characteristics of which are completely characterized by the stage and location of the site of the pathogens. For example, there may be signs of jaundice, exanthema, herpes rashes, nosebleeds or eye hemorrhages, dysfunctions in the work of the cardiovascular system, enlargement of the liver and much more. Also a symptom of leptospirosis may be painful, with pressure, the spleen.

The pathogenesis of leptospirosis in humans

Often leptospira enter the human body through microscopic lesions on the skin or mucous membranes. It is also possible to penetrate the pathogen through the eyes or upper digestive organs. During the incubation period of leptospirosis in humans, a parasite through the lymphatic blood stream enters practically all organs and systems, fixing and multiplying in them. The acute onset of leptospirosis in humans coincides with the ingestion of pathogens and products of their vital activity into the blood and lymph of a person.

The second stage of the disease is accompanied by the penetration of the parasite into all organs that were not previously affected. This causes serious violations in their work, leads to the appearance of symptoms of infection and thrombohemorrhagic syndrome. Lethal outcome is often associated with kidney dysfunction and their insufficiency.

Leptospirosis in humans is characterized by the ability of the body to develop immunity even during the course of the disease and without the use of medication.

Treatment of leptospirosis

Treatment of leptospirosis should be carried out under the strict supervision of medical personnel and in a hospital. The pathogenetic, symptomatic and etiotropic form of leptospirosis treatment is used. The latter includes injections of highly sensitive antibiotics, namely:

  • penicillin;
  • medication discharge of aminopenicillins, cephalosporins or tetracyclines in an amount relying on the patient's age category;
  • of gamma globulin;
  • other preparations of this group.

Treatment of leptospirosis requires a very long post-rehabilitative period, during which the patient must be under vigilant medical supervision and undergo examinations from many narrow specialists. The recovery process can take about two years.

Veterinary services and environmental authorities are obliged to carry out a set of actions aimed at identifying and treating carriers of leptospirosis infection, disinfection of reservoirs and animal accumulation sites.


1. Leptospirosis provokers

2. Symptoms of leptospirosis

3. Pathogenesis of human leptospirosis

4. Treatment of leptospirosis


This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.

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