1. Causes Leukemia
3. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia
Leukemia (leukemia) - a disease that develops whenmalignant lesions of hematopoiesis.When the disease some types of hematopoietic cells are transformed into malignant.Thus malignant cells start to proliferate actively replacing a normal blood cells and bone marrow.
most common leukemia in children 3-4 years of age and elderly people 60-69 years.
exact causes of leukemia, as well as other cancers, is not installed.But experts point to a number of factors that can trigger this disease.
infectious-viral factor.Scientists note that some viruses affecting the human body, promote the regeneration of healthy cells into malignant.
Hereditary predisposition.Very often, patients with leukemia are in the family of someone from relatives suffering from this disease.Hereditary cause of leukemia and is manifested in the fact that the disease occurs in families where one or both parents have a here
chemical factors.Experts point to another cause leukemia - taking certain medications.These medications include cytostatics used in the treatment of oncological diseases, antibiotics penicillin, cephalosporins.
Factor radiation exposure.The cause of leukemia is often called the action of ionizing radiation on humans.
There are acute and chronic leukemia.The chronic form of the disease occurs without relapse, but not the acute form becomes chronic.The form of the disease depends on the rate of development of malignant changes in the blood of leukemia patients.
symptoms of leukemia in the acute form occurs suddenly and grow very quickly.The patient appears incomprehensible increasing weakness, malaise, frequent dizziness, shortness of breath sometimes.Common symptoms of leukemia are acute forms of fever and symptoms of intoxication.In many patients, the disease starts like the common cold.The man abruptly with fever, nausea, vomiting, weakness, lightheadedness.
early signs of acute leukemia are often swollen lymph nodes, recurrent bleeding (with little damage to the skin, gums, or nose), which are difficult to stop, pain in the joints and bones.
Leukemia most often in children manifests itself in acute form.This malignant disease is most common in children oncology.
This form of the disease is of two main types - acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
acute myeloid form is most common in adult patients with leukemia.In humans, swollen lymph nodes, spleen and liver.In the stomach, tonsils, in throat, mouth develop necrosis (tissue necrosis).Usually such patients are tumor formation in the kidneys.Some patients develop lung infiltration, meninges, bleeding in internal organs.
Leukemia in children, in most cases, is manifested in the form of acute lymphoblastic.In addition to these symptoms of leukemia, patients develop leukaemic infiltration in lymphatic apparatus digestive tract, the kidneys.Infiltrated the thymus leukemia in children is enormous.
Chronic leukemia is characterized by a fairly long period of development.Patients with leukemia complain of dramatic weight loss, heaviness in the left upper quadrant, increased sweating, general weakness.In addition, the symptoms of this form of leukemia, there are enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit, around the neck, groin, enlargement of the spleen and liver.The patient has leukemia symptoms are present such as bleeding, anemia, susceptibility to infectious diseases.
Diagnosis of this disease includes first medical examination, bone marrow examination, general and biochemical blood tests.
With the help of a blood test set are available in it changes.
main method of diagnosis of leukemia is a brain puncture.Usually it is used to confirm or refute the diagnosis already.Using brain puncture set type of leukemia and its duration.
There is a special immunoassay to determine the exact subtype of the disease.This gives the patient the ability to assign more effective treatment of leukemia.
addition to determine the genetic changes at the molecular level is sometimes carried out molecular genetic study.It allows you to set the degree of aggressiveness of the disease.
main method of treatment of acute leukemia is a form of chemotherapy.To do this, use different combinations of anticancer agents that are capable of destroying tumor cells.In the first phase of the treatment (induction therapy) patients with leukemia designate intensive treatment for 4-6 weeks.In the second phase of treatment (therapy anchoring) destroying abnormal cells that are still present in the body.Such maintenance therapy may last for 2-3 years.
effective treatments for leukemia is a bone marrow transplant.This is a fairly complicated procedure.Initially, all produced by blood cells destroyed by irradiation.Thereafter, new donor cells are injected into the bone marrow with healthy cells.In order to avoid the invasion of malignant cells from the bone marrow, often spend additional radiotherapy.
Treatment of leukemia is chronic form mainly in the general strengthening of the patient's body.He prescribed vitamin complexes, complete rest.In the period of acute leukemia patients with this form of treatment is carried out by X-rays.
In the treatment of chronic leukemia shall be repeated irradiation with x-rays in high doses of different parts of the bones and spleen.
prognosis of the disease is much more favorable today than a few decades ago.Especially successfully treat leukemia in children.About 90% of patients achieve remission.Approximately 50% of patients survive for five years or more.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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