Pulmonary hypertension - types , symptoms, treatment


1. Types and causes of the disease

2. degrees and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension

3. Diagnosis and treatment of disease

Pulmonary pathological gipertenziya-the state of the pulmonary artery, in which it observed a persistent increase in systolic blood pressure as a result of narrowing or closing of the pulmonary vessels.Mean pulmonary artery pressure should not exceed 25mm.Hg.Art.If this value is greater, it is possible to speak about the presence of human pulmonary hypertension.

Types and causes of the disease

Depending on the cause of the disease distinguish two types:

1. Primary pulmonary hypertension - develops as an independent disease, it is rare.The diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension is put in cases where the reason for its occurrence is not found.In some cases, the cause is a congenital abnormality of pulmonary vessels.

2. Secondary pulmonary hypertension - occurs as a complication of the underlying disease, its course is often acute, and it is d

iagnosed much more frequently than primary pulmonary hypertension.In medicine today, there are more than one hundred kinds of diseases, which can cause the development of secondary pulmonary hypertension.

Depending on the location of high pressure localization should distinguish between the arterial (prekapilyarnuyu) and venous (postkapilyarnuyu) pulmonary hypertension (PH).

Causes of arterial PH can be: various bronchi and lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, miliary tuberculosis, alveolitis, and others);lung vessels due to thrombosis, vasculitis, pulmonary embolism, congenital heart defects;neuromuscular diseases, and various skeletal deformation (kyphosis, scoliosis).Primary pulmonary hypertension is both a cause of arterial PH and its species.

When venous LH affects the pulmonary veins, and it occurs because of the failure of the left ventricle and the violation of its content.

degrees and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension

There are three degrees of pulmonary hypertension:

1. First degree - labile N.

2. The second stage - stable PH.

3. Third degree - irreversible PH.When

first degree of pulmonary hypertension in the pulmonary artery pressure is in the range 30-35 mmHg.Art., and increased significantly (up to 70 mm. Hg. v. and above) only during exercise.

second degree of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by the beginning of the right ventricular hypertrophy and sclerotic changes in vessels.Pressure steadily increased.

third degree of the disease tells about the further development of ventricular hypertrophy and atherosclerosis vascular pulmonary artery around its trunk and branches.These changes tend to have irreversible.Develops failure of the right ventricle and, as a consequence, the systolic blood pressure decreases.

In addition, there are four degrees of the disease, which is characterized by systolic pressure value.

When pressure within 25-50 mm.Hg.Art.diagnosed with first degree of pulmonary hypertension.Pressures from 51 to 75 mm.Hg.Article talks about the second degree of the disease.When the systolic pressure above 76 mm.Hg.Art., but less than 110 mm.Hg.Art.diagnosed third degree of pulmonary hypertension.A pressure higher than 111 mm.Hg.Article defines the fourth degree of the disease.

symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are directly dependent on the degree of illness and its causes.

At first degree obvious symptoms, usually no disease.

most frequently occurring symptoms of pulmonary hypertension of the second degree:

  • hindered shortness of breath, particularly acute when the emotional stress
  • weakness, decreased performance, fatigue
  • frequent dizziness, possible fainting
  • shrinking, pressing pain in
  • heartpale skin, weak pulse, cold extremities
  • low blood pressure
  • cyanosis skin

third degree of the disease is characterized by a worsening of pulmonary hypertension signs listed above.Also appearing:

  • dry cough, hoarseness of voice
  • hemoptysis (occurs in one third of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension)
  • lower limb edema
  • ascites

important to understand that pulmonary hypertension these symptoms only possible (but not required), its symptoms, the overall clinical picture also includes the symptoms of a particular disease, which acted as the cause of pulmonary hypertension.

Diagnosis and treatment of disease

At first trevozhnyhpriznakah pulmonary gipertenziipatsientu should be examined.First, you need to hold general, biochemical, immunological blood test.The second step - diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension, which is carried out by the following methods:

1. Electrocardiography (ECG).It allows you to evaluate the condition of the right ventricle and the right atrium.

2. Chest X-ray.Detection of heart disease and lung disease.

3. transthoracic echocardiography.You can use it to find out the level of systolic blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, as well as to identify the causes and complications of pulmonary hypertension.

4. Computed tomography.It allows you to identify pulmonary disease, as well as a detailed study of the parenchyma.

5. Magnetic resonance therapy.It gives the opportunity to assess the condition of the heart and blood circulation in the lungs.

main goal pursued by doctors voproselecheniya pulmonary hypertension - to reduce systolic blood pressure in the pulmonary artery.As the secondary and in primary pulmonary hypertension to achieve this goal it is necessary: ​​

1. Relax the muscular layer of blood vessels

2. Reduce blood viscosity

3. Improve blood circulation

To achieve these goals in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension using three groupspreparations:

  • anticoagulants - reduce the viscosity of blood, do not allow blood clots
  • vasodilators - expands, relaxes the blood vessels, thus reducing the pressure in them
  • prostacyclin drugs - used to improve microcirculation.

In addition, to minimize the manifestation of symptoms of pulmonary hypertension, and thus alleviate the condition, the patient is recommended to restrict the exercise, in time to treat pulmonary infection, vaccinated.

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension complicated and not always successful process.It is especially difficult amenable to primary hypertension treatment.Since the causes of primary hypertension are practically unknown, its treatment is reduced to only eliminate symptoms.

Treatment of secondary pulmonary hypertension should start with the treatment of the disease, which has become the cause.

In some cases, congenital and acquired heart diseases, pulmonary thromboembolism, and in case of failure of conservative treatment of pulmonary hypertension applies its surgical treatment.

Pulmonary hypertension - a serious illness, but on condition of timely diagnosis of prognosis in most cases favorable.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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