13 May

Hemoptysis - Causes , treatment , first aid

Contents:

1. reasons hemoptysis

2. Diagnostics

3. Treatment of hemoptysis

Hemoptysis - a discharge of blood from the respiratory system when coughing.This pathological condition is not considered a disease, but a symptom of respiratory injury or symptom of various diseases.

reasons hemoptysis

The most common causes of hemoptysis are: chronic and acute bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchiectasis and lung cancer.Approximately 20% of patients with a provoking factor of this disease can not be established.

Potential causes of hemoptysis syndrome:

  • Acute and chronic bronchitis.This disease is characterized by minimal pulmonary hemoptysis (blood in the veins or mucous purulent sputum).
  • Tuberculosis.It is accompanied by a constant cough, weakness, blood streaked sputum, fever, weight loss and so on.Hemoptysis, most often observed in the fibro-cavernous form of the disease.
  • Bronchiectasis.This disease is manifested by chronic cough with purulent sputum.Repeated hemoptysis synd
    rome may be the only sign of "dry bronchiectasis".
  • Acute pneumonia can also be the cause of hemoptysis.In 75% of cases there is sputum "rusty color."Coughing up blood is accompanied by staphylococcal pneumonia.
  • mycetoma (fungal ball).Almost any fungal lung infection process is accompanied by streaks of blood in cough (this is the main symptom of mycetoma).
  • Chronic and acute lung abscess.The disease is usually a complication of purulent pneumonia.In 11% of patients have pulmonary hemoptysis, 5% of patients are found massive selection of blood or pulmonary hemorrhage.
  • Parasitic lung disease: trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, paragonimiasis, ascariasis, echinococcosis.
  • adenoma of the bronchus has two clinical manifestations: cough and recurrent hemoptysis syndrome.
  • Lung cancer is also one of the main causes of hemoptysis.This symptom is most often accompanied by central cancer.
  • Pulmonary hypertension (Eisenmenger's syndrome, primary pulmonary hypertension, mitral stenosis).Isolation of blood during coughing shows pulmonary capillary break or veins because of high pressure in the pulmonary artery.
  • Pulmonary embolism.Within 24-48 hours after embolism occur pleuritic pain, pyrexia and discharge of blood when coughing.
  • pulmonary edema is characterized by frothy, blood stained sputum, concomitant cardiac disease and significant shortness of breath.
  • also cause hemoptysis can beat injury (contusion of the lung, lung injury in penetrating or gunshot wounds of the chest, with the rib fracture).
  • Inhalation of toxic substances or fumes can also cause pulmonary hemoptysis.
  • For congenital anomalies, which are accompanied by blood-streaked sputum, include cystic fibrosis, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, bronchial cyst and hypoplasia of the pulmonary vessels.
  • disease of unknown etiology: systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa, Goodpasture's syndrome, and sarcoidosis.
  • Iatrogenic pathology: anticoagulant treatment, pulmonary artery catheterization, bronchoscopy, percutaneous lung puncture, transbronchial biopsy.
  • Bronholitiaz (multiple stones in the lumen of the bronchi).
  • Endometriosis with pulmonary involvement.Spontaneous pneumothorax and hemoptysis syndrome coincide with the menstrual cycle.
  • pulmonary Amyloidosis is a rare disease, which can also be accompanied by pulmonary secretions blood.
  • Blood diseases - anemia, leukemia and hemophilia.
  • Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis appears typical pulmonary hemoptysis and hypochromic anemia.

Diagnostics

Today, when a syndrome hemoptysis resorted to the following laboratory and instrumental studies: detailed KLA (CBC), urinalysis, coagulation (with suspected bleeding), sputum examination, biochemical analysis(potassium, sodium, creatinine, urea), bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and computed bronchography breast imaging.

Treatment of hemoptysis

Since pulmonary hemoptysis is sufficiently alarming symptoms, treatment of this disease must be approached with the utmost seriousness.As a rule, a small discharge of blood when coughing is not abundant, and it stops on its own without any treatment.If the same amount of blood released exceeds the permitted limit, in such situations, treatment of hemoptysis is to provide emergency assistance.

basic elements of care for hemoptysis are absolute patient rest, half upright position, the patient is forbidden to speak, the provider is obliged to convince the patient to restrain coughing and breathing deeply.In addition, it helps with hemoptysis comprises administering etamzilata 12.5% ​​solution, 10% calcium chloride solution or 5% aminocaproic acid.During massive hemoptysis assistance in nature near the patient should be in a tray with pieces of ice.Every 15 minutes, the patient should be given to swallow one bite.

With regard to the treatment of hemoptysis non-traditional methods, it is aimed at addressing the underlying disease, which provoked the symptom.Treatment of haemoptysis folk remedies at the present time is a fairly effective method that requires a mandatory consultation with the doctor.As symptomatic drugs can be used all hemostatic herbs.The most common herbs to eliminate bleeding pulmonary secretions are: chicory, yarrow, geranium root, nettle leaves, knotweed pepper, plantain leaves, white nettle, mountaineer snake, watch a three-sheeted, Agrimony ordinary, medicinal roots burnet and field horsetail.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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