Bleeding - Causes, symptoms , first aid


1. reasons, types and symptoms of bleeding

2. internal hemorrhage

3. First aid for bleeding

Bleeding (hemorrhage, gematizm) -flow of blood from the bloodstream as a result of vascular injury or improve their permeability.

reasons, types and symptoms of bleeding

cause bleeding can be divided into two groups: traumatic and pathological.Most often, the flow of blood occurs due to injury, namely punches, bruises, cuts, fractures, etc.Abnormal bleeding can occur in patients with atherosclerosis, cancer, syphilis, blood diseases, sepsis, etc.Sometimes the cause of hemorrhage is a sharp increase in blood pressure.

Depending on the environment distinguish hemorrhage:

1. Internal bleeding - this type of bleeding is characterized by the outpouring of blood in a body cavity or body lumen.

2. External bleeding - blood flows outwards through the skin or mucous membranes.

Depending on the type of damaged vessels are the following types of bleeding:

1. Arterial bleeding - blood

flows from the arteries.Recognize you can on the bright red blood stream which flows continuously and pulses in time with the heart rate.In the event that hurt the large arteries, the blood has a "fountain".

2. Venous bleeding - blood flows from the veins.Distinguishing feature is bleeding from veins deep blood-red color.Due to the lower pressure in the veins of the blood stream and is not pulsing beats fountain, it is uniformly and continuously follows.

3. Capillary bleeding - blood flows from the capillaries.The most common and easiest type of bleeding, manifesting itself slowly ensuing blood drops across the wound surface.The color of blood in the capillaries of bright red, visually similar to the color of blood arterial.

4. Parenchymal bleeding - blood flows from the tissues of parenchymal organs (liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, etc.).Stop the bleeding of this type of hard exercise, it is always plentiful and almost always pose a threat to human life.

5. Mixed bleeding - blood flows from the veins and arteries simultaneously.Enough common type of bleeding is characteristic of deeper injuries.

Any bleeding (excluding capillary) is potentially dangerous to human life, the level of danger depends on the volume of the streamed blood.If the amount of blood loss greater than 1000 ml blood loss is considered to be severe, more than 2500 ml - a fatal hemorrhage.Blood loss in light is called if the volume of lost blood is less than 500 ml.

internal hemorrhage

Internal bleeding can occur in almost any organ or the human body cavities.This may be the esophagus, stomach, rectum, bladder, kidneys, lungs, brain ventricles, pleural and abdominal cavity, and cranial joint cavity etc.Very often there are cases of uterine bleeding in women.

General symptomatic picture of internal bleeding may be supplemented by specific symptoms, which depend on the localization of blood expire.Thus, the common symptoms (subjective symptoms) of this type of bleeding are:

  • excessive thirst, dry mouth
  • weakness, dizziness
  • otdyshka
  • pale skin and mucous membranes
  • blackout, faint and dizzy
  • possible fainting
  • rapid pulse
  • pressure reduction.

speed display above signs of bleeding depends on the expiration of the blood velocity.

Specific manifestations of internal bleeding:

  • blood released through the mouth - a sign of bleeding of the respiratory or digestive system
  • frothy, bright red blood - a sign of bleeding from the lungs
  • bloody vomiting, loose bloody stools - is observed in gastric hemorrhage
  • bloody stools, stools with streaks of blood - characterizes intestinal bleeding
  • chair or streaked with blood stains - is observed in rectal fissures.

Internal bleeding is not easy to recognize, especially in its latent form, which does not manifest itself by any specific features.Among the hidden internal hemorrhages occur more often bleeding into the joint cavity, into the brain ventricles, the pleural and peritoneal cavity.

Internal bleeding is always dangerous to life, for this reason, in the presence of bleeding symptoms should immediately seek medical attention.

First aid for bleeding

Everyone from time to time faced with capillary bleeding.Stopping this type of bleeding occurs spontaneously or after laying the wound tight bandage.If necessary, before laying on the dressing the wound should be cleaned with antiseptic.

It is important to spend the time to stop bleeding before the injured person will be taken to the hospital.

first aid for bleeding from the artery should be implemented as follows:

1. If the blood leaking slightly, that is to say, struck the small arteries, can do laying on the wound a compression bandage.

2. In large artery to stop the bleeding must be:

  • put the patient so that the bleeding site was above the heart level
  • press finger affected artery (temporal, mandibular, common carotid, subclavian, axillary, brachial, radial,femoral, pedis artery), so that instant will stop bleeding
  • wound above the level necessary to impose medical tourniquet (if not, suitable towel, belt, rope, rubber tube)
  • remember that the wiring can be kept no more than 1.5 hours.If after this time the patient is delivered should be removed for 3-5 minutes to the hospital harness, while not forget to press the artery, and then fasten again for a couple of centimeters above the previous place.

First aid for bleeding from veins:

1. Put the patient so that bleeding place was over

2. At the level of the heart to moderate blood loss, apply a pressure bandage on the wound, pre zatamponirovav it.As a tampon can not put a roll unwound the bandage.Most often, these actions enough to stop the bleeding from the veins.

3. But if the bleeding has not stopped, apply a tourniquet below the injury level.

confirmation of the correctness of your actions will stop the bleeding.If it is not stopped, it is possible, you have done something wrong, or incorrectly determined the form of bleeding.

First aid for suspected internal bleeding:

1. The patient must be taken half upright or horizontal position, his feet should be put on an elevated surface (eg, a pillow).

2. Apply on the location of intended bleeding cooling bandage.Can take any fabric, put it on ice pack or a bottle with cold water.

3. When suspected gastric blood loss to the patient can not eat and drink.If there is a feeling of thirst, you can rinse your mouth with cold water.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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