2. infection symptoms and course of the disease
3. Measles adults
4. Treatment of measles
6. measles prevention
measles - an acute viral disease, which is one of the most contagious and common infections.Measles - RNA virus genus morbilliviruses, which is transmitted by airborne droplets.This virus has a very low resistance to various influences (boiling, disinfection) and quickly die outside the human body.
source of infection is a sick man - the carrier of the virus.The virus is released when you sneeze, cough, droplets of saliva when speaking.A person is contagious to others, since the last two days of the incubation period of the disease before the fourth day of skin rash.On the fifth day since the appearance of blotchy rash the patient is no longer a distributor of infection.
As a rule, a person is sick with measles once in a lifetime.After this illness develops a strong immunity to it, although the described cases
Neonates whose mothers had been ill with measles before pregnancy, during the first three months of life is preserved immune to measles.Most often the disease occurs in children under six months and in children one to four years.
Most cases of measles usually falls on the winter-spring period (December to May).But in countries where vaccination against measles, the disease is rare, in the form of individual cases and sometimes in the form of mini-epidemics.But if we evaluate the worldwide statistics, measles in children still is among the most common causes of death at an early age.
incubation period, ie the time from infection until the first signs of the disease in patients with measles is usually from 8 to 14 days (occasionally it can last up to 17 days).The first symptoms of measles occur acutely: the patient's temperature rises to 38 - 40 ° C, appear dry cough, runny nose, sneezing, photophobia, headache, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat, red spots on the palate.Primary symptoms of measles are also manifest as sudden weakness and lack of appetite.
On the second day on the buccal mucosa of the patient at the root of the teeth characteristic whitish spots appear with a red border around.Further measles symptoms in the fourth or fifth day of illness as a maculopapular rash on the skin.Usually the rash appears first on the neck, face and ears, and then spreads to the arms, legs and fingers.
Unlike typical measles rash of rubella is that it tends to merge.Small papules that make up the rash, may merge with each other to form a more extensive rash on the area.
Starting from the fourth day of the rash of rashes dark, scaly and pigmented, and the patient's temperature returns to normal.The reverse process of development of elements of measles rash lasts for 1 - 1.5 weeks.First, on the site of the rash is brown pigmentation, but after two weeks it completely passes, and the skin becomes clean.
measles in adults is most often observed after 20 years.The infection affects the people who have not suffered it as children and who have not been vaccinated against measles.Typically, an adult disease carries heavier and measles symptoms are more pronounced.In addition, adult measles is often accompanied by bacterial diseases, measles and pneumonia.
Since specific therapy for the treatment of measles does not exist, the treatment of the disease is to eliminate measles symptoms - pain reduction, removal of fever, relieving breathing.For this purpose expectorant and mucolytic agents, antiinflammatory aerosols, paracetamol and ibuprofen.The patient throughout the treatment needs bed rest and drinking plenty of fluids.
to remove pruritus conducted daily body rinse and apply Delaksin powder solution.Reduce inflammation in the oral cavity is carried out by rinsing with chlorhexidine solution or infusion of chamomile, and to remove the eye puffiness apply compresses with strong tea or soda solution.With the development of conjunctivitis eye drops used with antibiotics.
Antibiotics are also used in the treatment of measles complications (pneumonia, bacterial diseases).In particularly severe cases, the treatment is also used corticosteroids.In the treatment of measles for children older than 12 months are sometimes prescribed vitamin A, which is taken within two days.
When treating measles in children under 16 years of age is not recommended for the treatment of pain and fever, aspirin, because according to some studies, it can cause the development of Reye's syndrome.
Complications most commonly observed complications of measles in children under five years of age and in adults over 20 years.The most common of them - is otitis media (middle ear infection), inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes, pneumonia, blindness, laryngitis, measles encephalitis, stenosis of the larynx, measles, pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia, hepatitis.Suffice rare measles may develop late complication of subacute panencephalitis sklerotiruyuschego.
Complications from measles in adults and children - is a fairly common phenomenon, therefore treatment of the disease must be accompanied by long-term medical control: even after the disease had been ill with measles is recommended for a long time to inspect every few days.
reliable and proven means of preventing the disease are immunized against measles - artificial infection with the weakened virus.After being vaccinated against measles body begins to produce protective antibodies, that is, the person has active immunity against the disease.As a result of vaccination against measles strong immunity persists for 15 years.
, ie they do not have immunity starts to be developed for an effective vaccination is required to make two vaccinations against measles, as approximately 15% of children do not respond to a single dose of vaccine.The first vaccinations do the children under the age of 12 months.The second time the children are vaccinated at the age of six.
Sometimes after measles vaccination in children may appear ill-defined response in the form of a small rash, conjunctivitis, fever.Generally, these symptoms occur 6 to day 20 after inoculation, stored for two - three days and then go away.
Vaccination is contraindicated in pregnant women, patients with tuberculosis, lymphoma, leukemia, as well as HIV-positive.If you have the probability of infection of the above categories of persons who do not have protective antibodies against measles, used passive immunization: within five days after contact they administered measles immunoglobulin.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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