12 May

joint contracture - types and treatment of each

Contents:

1. Causes contractures and types

2. Treatment of diseases

3. Prevention joint contractures

condition in which there is a limited joint mobilityas a consequence of scarring, inflammatory, traumatic, pathological changes in the skin, tendons, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, blood vessels, nerves, called a joint contracture.

Causes contractures and types

joint contracture - it's just a symptom of this illness, injury, or congenital abnormalities.

There are many different classifications of joint contractures.

Depending on the affected area is isolated contracture: arthrogenic (arise from fractures, dislocations of bones), dermatogenic (develop after skin burns), desmogennye (appear after an inflammatory process), myogenic (developed as a result of muscle damage), tendon (occur after injurytendons), neurogenic (developed as a result of paralysis, brain hemorrhage, CNS diseases).

also joint contractures are divided into: flexion (the patient can not straighten the limb), ext

ensor (limb can not be bent), leading or diverting (the patient can not move aside (or press) ailing limb), rotary (impossibility of any movement).

causes of joint contractures following:

  • heredity (birth defects, such as clubfoot).
  • mechanical damage.Joint contractures occur after stretch, fractures, sprains, burns, which affects the periarticular tissues.At the site of damaged tissue forms a scar.Scar tissue is not elastic properties, for this reason, the scar prevents normal movement of the joint.As a rule, any damage to the musculoskeletal system is accompanied by a joint contracture of varying severity.
  • Postponed (or existing) illnesses such as arthritis (joint deformation, which occurs in old age), arthritis (joint deformation mainly in young people) may also cause the development of contractures.Most often in such strains develop contracture of the elbow joint and knee joint contracture.
  • contracture can occur due to lesions of the nervous system.

Most often, joint contracture occurs precisely by its mechanical damage.Injury knee, hands, feet happen very often, and almost every injury is accompanied by joint contractures.There is so because after the injury, the normal recovery of the damaged places need his rest (immobilization).A long immobilization, in turn, leads to the development of contracture of varying severity.The longer the damaged area amenable to immobilization, the harder it will be to eliminate the acquired joint contracture.

Treatment Treatment of disease

joint contractures depends on its severity and location of the affected joint.In humans, more than two hundred joints, but contracture often exposed to the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.

contracture of the knee behaves outward curvature of the tibia, in the chronic form of possible functional shortening of the patient limb when trying to make the movement felt a strong pain in the joint.

Treatment contracture of the knee joint can be conservative and surgical.

Choice of treatment depends on how much time the joint was immobilized (ie, is in a state of rest).If the period of immobilization of up to three weeks, the degree of contracture of the knee joint is usually easy and requires only a simple exercise to restore muscle tone, which can be done at home.

If the period of immobilization for more than three weeks, conservative treatment of contracture of the knee is carried out:

  • method of physical therapy, therapeutic exercises and massages.A range of these procedures improve blood circulation, restore old muscle tone, eliminates stagnant processes in the joint and begin the process of formation of adhesions
  • medical methods, therapeutic blockade.In the joint area administered painkillers (novocaine, lidocaine), begins the process of anesthesia and as a result, it resumes normal muscle tone
  • manual therapy

There are times when you do not do without surgery.

One of the operational methods, in which the healed skin is cut, and in its place impose a healthy skin, called "excision of scars."It gives a good effect in the treatment of contracture of the elbow joint.

There are other types of surgery, namely tenotomy (cutting the tendons), fibrotomiya (dissection of muscle) capsulotomy (incision of the joint capsule), arthrolysis (colliotomy).

contracture of the elbow responds well to treatment.With the help of local treatment (massage, compresses, ointments), electrophoresis (with special enzyme preparations), as well as therapeutic exercises elbow gets lost motor capabilities.

In modern hospitals for the treatment of contractures of the elbow using the method of shock wave therapy, which aims to improve blood circulation and destruction of the remaining scars after injury.

In the case of pronounced deformities, incorrect healing of fractures, dislocations nevpravlennyh or full immobility damaged area (ankylosis) for the treatment of contractures of the elbow must be operative (surgical) intervention.

contracture of the ankle behaves limited ability to move freely, spinal deformity, flat feet healthy foot development, in its chronic form - functional extended sick foot.

It ankle the most vulnerable to the contraction, as is the mobility of the joints of the body.Injuries often occur when tucking foot (stretched ligaments), with increased load on the foot (damaged tendon), in a variety of inflammation of the ankle joint.

It is worth remembering that the forced straightening contractures of the ankle (and any other joint contracture) is unacceptable, as 99% of cases leads to the rupture of infected periarticular tissues, which leads to their irreversible changes.

Quite often the cause of contracture of the ankle is a pinched nerve in the lumbar spine, which is (nerve) is responsible for controlling the muscles of the foot.

Treatment contracture of the ankle is almost always carried out by conservative methods, surgical intervention is possible only under strong tissue damage.Traditional methods of treatment are the same as in the treatment of contracture of the knee joint.

Prevention joint contractures

prevention of contractures includes:

  • competent and timely treatment of diseases that cause contractures
  • mandatory rehabilitation after fractures, sprains and other injuries
  • prevention of arthritis and arthrosis

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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