Contact dermatitis - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment


1. Causes contact dermatitis

2. Classification

3. The symptoms of contact dermatitis

4. Treatment

term "dermatitis" is formedfrom the Greek "derma" meaning "skin", and "itis" meaning inflammation.The words contact dermatitis means a collective term that refers to an acute inflammation of the skin under the influence of irritating environmental factors.When the reaction is severe, contact dermatitis called simple or irritant.If the reaction develops gradually over time, the disease is called allergic dermatitis.In the acute phase contact dermatitis occurs with the formation of erythema and vesicles in chronic - dry skin and skin thickening drawing.This illness is suffering from 2 to 10% of the population.The share of contact dermatitis accounts for up to 15-20% of the total number of dermatological patients.

Causes contact dermatitis

main cause of contact dermatitis of any kind - it is skin contact with an aggressive stimulus.On the severity of the skin response is in

fluenced by such factors as the concentration, dose, potency of the chemical and molecular weight of the stimulus, skin condition, the time of contact with an irritant.And the skin on different parts of the body react to the stimulus in their own way.The most sensitive in this regard, the earlobe, the skin of the genitals, and most stable - the palms and soles.The very same body's reaction can go in two ways.In the case of a simple or irritant dermatitis, it does not affect the immunological reaction.The illness affects mainly adults in contact with allergesoderzhaschimi substances mainly in professional activities.The share of irritant reactions account for 80% of all cases of dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis develops the type of immune responses.Skin symptoms as a result of sensitization to an allergen.The medical literature describes three thousand such allergens.

main causes of contact dermatitis are known to many from his childhood - a nickel, topical antibiotics, preservatives, fragrances, rubber products.Because most food allergens are known anise, carrots, celery, figs, lemon, lime, parsley, parsnips.The substances causing allergic and irritant dermatitis also include nickel phosphate (found in nickel-plated items, jewelry, coins, jewelry), latex (part of surgical gloves, balloons, condoms, etc.), neomycin sulfate (a component of cosmetics and vaccines), local anesthetics (sports creams, sprays, suppositories, hair dye), thimerosal (found in the preservative for injections, eye drops and nasal solution for contact lenses), The causes of contact dermatitis can also include parabens (they can be found infood preservatives, cosmetics and antibiotics), cobalt chloride (part of the cement, paints, vitamin B12 and metallic finishes), epoxy resin (impregnation component for furniture, adhesive tape and paint), formaldehyde (found in synthetic rubber, textiles, plastics)and many other substances.


By type skin reactions contact dermatitis can be divided into seven groups:

- Restricted locally irritating reaction.Manifested in the form of a burning sensation and pain almost immediately after contact with an irritant, and more often - on the face.

- Acute irritant contact dermatitis.It arises as a result of a long-acting or short-acting strong multiple stimuli.

- Chronic irritant contact dermatitis.The result of multiple repeated contacts with weak irritants such as household chemicals.

- Allergic contact dermatitis.The reaction that occurs when repeated contact with the allergen sensitization after him immune system.

- Allergic fotodermatit.A variation of dermatitis in which the stimulus response occurs only under the action of sunlight or UV light.

- Fitodermatit.Dermatitis, which develops as a result of exposure to chemical plant components.

- Systemic contact dermatitis.It occurs after regular use of the drug, which has developed sensitization reaction.

Sometimes in literature there is another classification related to the origin of the stimulus.From this perspective, dermatitis can be divided into diaper dermatitis, contact stomatitis, dermatitis, mucous membranes, dermatitis associated with wearing clothing or footwear, dermatitis from contact with paint, dermatitis from contact with plastic, cosmetic dermatitis, dermatitis associated with the use of topical glucocorticosteroids, latex dermatitis, occupational dermatitis, dermatitis divers.

symptoms of contact dermatitis

Manifestations of contact dermatitis depends on the stage of development of skin rash, character and severity of the disease (acute or chronic) and the type of dermatitis - (irritant or allergic).Let us examine the symptoms of contact dermatitis in more detail.

In acute contact dermatitis occurs first erythema or redness of the skin, then appear the vesicles or blisters filled with clear content.After their breakthrough form of erosion, crusting, and after the step of peeling the skin heals.

In chronic course the main symptom of irritant contact dermatitis type - is an inflammatory skin infiltration.Thereupon observed peeling, cracks, and finally, crusting.If the patient is in contact with an irritant only once, dermatitis can pass without treatment.Repeated contact with the irritant acute form of the disease becomes chronic, and the lesions boundaries are blurred.

The main symptoms of acute allergic contact dermatitis type generally resemble simple dermatitis, but also formed papules - dense bundles of red, like balls.The lesion in this case may be limited at first, and then washed away, and in sensitized patients may spread throughout the body.The main symptoms of chronic allergic contact dermatitis type - is the appearance of papules, scaling, rapid thickening of the skin and, finally, mechanical damage to the skin (excoriation).


treatment contact dermatitis depends on the type of disease.General principles to be reduced to eliminate the irritant or allergen, depending on severity of disease assign antihistamines and corticosteroids.However, in each case, a doctor may prescribe an individual strategy of treatment of contact dermatitis.

In irritant dermatitis is important to limit skin contact not only with the reagent, which caused strong reactions, but also with weak stimuli - water, soap, detergents, friction, etc.It plays an important role early diagnosis, since in repeated contact with an irritant acute irritant dermatitis may become chronic.Effective treatment of contact dermatitis require complete elimination of skin contact with an irritant.Of the drugs may be prescribed steroids to reduce manifestations of erythema, itching, relieve pain, swelling and other symptoms of contact dermatitis.Contact Dermatitis Treatment in the acute form may include corticosteroids inward and outward.In severe cases, hospitalization is required.

treatment of allergic contact dermatitis type requires not only eliminate allergen and drug therapy, but also subsequent giposesibilizatsii or decrease allergen sensitivity.To reduce the allergic reaction appointed antihistamines, hyposensitization, sedatives or corticosteroid drugs.With a weak symptomatic drugs are applied topically, in acute treatment of contact dermatitis reaction requires use of oral antihistamines.In addition to the treatment can be assigned to a hypoallergenic diet and vitamin therapy.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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