11 May

Whooping cough - symptoms , tests and treatment methods

Contents:

1. Symptoms of pertussis

2. Pertussis in adults

3. tests for pertussis

4. Treatment of pertussis

5. Complications

6. Prevention

Pertussis - dangerous infectious respiratory tract disease, which is accompanied by prolonged paroxysmal cough.In most cases of whooping cough sick children of preschool age.Whooping cough in adults is rare.The causative agent of the disease is pertussis bacillus Bordetella pertussis.It is absolutely not resistant to environmental conditions and immediately die outside the human body.Therefore, the disease spreads only through airborne droplets, and its source can be a sick person or clinically healthy carrier of infection.

Symptoms of pertussis

On average, the disease lasts for about 6 weeks and includes 3 stages: catarrhal, paroxysmal and recovery.

initial period of pertussis in children is not characterized by any specificity.Symptoms of pertussis in this case resemble symptoms of ARI: a slight indisposition, a slight increase in

temperature (no more than 37.5 ° C), mucous discharge from the nose, a rare dry cough.These features are characteristic of the incubation period, which lasts for 1-2 weeks.During this period the patient is most contagious - in contact with them can catch 90% of susceptible individuals.

After 7-14 days after the start of the pathogen of the disease begins to actively allocate their toxins in the lumen of the bronchi and blood.It was then, and begin to show the main symptoms of pertussis.Thus toxin may act as the respiratory tract and the central nervous system, which explains the unstable mood child, his lack of appetite and sleep.

On 12-14-th day of the disease cough increases, and observed spasmodic attacks, which are the hallmark of whooping cough in children.The attack consists of a series of jolts cough, changing deep whistling breath.At this point, the child is very excited, his face turning blue, and swollen neck veins swell and the conjunctiva and sclera of the eye observed petechial hemorrhages.When coughing patient completely sticks out tongue, because of what language the bridle can be injured and covered with sores.In infants at high risk of respiratory arrest and cramps throughout the body.At the end of the attack, a small quantity of viscous mucus or vomit.

Depending on severity of the disease per day may be from 5 to 50 seizures.In young babies attacks do not happen, but the cough can be persistent and be accompanied by vomiting.The duration of this period pertussis symptoms as spasmodic cough, is about 3-4 weeks.Then alternate bouts nesudorozhnym cough that signals the beginning of the period of authorization, which lasts 2-3 weeks.

Pertussis in adults

Very rarely, but it happens that an adult who recover from whooping cough as a child becomes ill again.Generally, this disease leaves behind in the human body is very strong immunity.But in rare cases, the coincidence of pertussis infection and a sharp drop in immunity, an adult can get re-infected.

usually cough in adults is not accompanied by vomiting.Symptoms of pertussis in the adult can emerge almost imperceptibly both for himself and for others.The danger of such a course of the disease lies in the fact that the patient is still contagious and actively spread the infection.

tests for pertussis

Bacteriological analysis for pertussis is a collection of mucus from the throat.Thanks to it is possible to identify the pathogen or antigen.

Immunofluorescence analysis is required to determine pertussis immunoglobulin M and G antigens toxin serum.

With general blood test can reveal an increase in the number of lymphocytes and leukocytes with normal ESR.

also to determine whether the pertussis bacillus in the human body is carried out such an analysis on whooping cough, as a reaction to latex microagglutination in the patient sample of saliva.

Treatment

pertussis whooping cough treatment in children up to a year, as well as in children with complications should be performed in a hospital.In other cases, the child is treated at home.It is important to create for him the most peaceful environment and eliminate any irritants that can provoke an attack of spasmodic cough.It is necessary to constantly ventilate the room and do wet cleaning.An important role in the treatment of whooping cough has also played a diet providing decrease the energy value of the daily diet at the expense of carbohydrates and fats, as well as the increase in the consumption of vitamins and fluids.

At the initial stage of the treatment of whooping cough justified the use of antibiotics, since at this time they are able to resist the pathogen.In this case, complete recovery may occur before the step of spasmodic cough.If a cough is already powerless to antibiotics.Therefore, in mild disease treatment in the second step does not include pertussis antibiotics.

drugs, which is particularly sensitive to the pertussis bacillus, - azithromycin and erythromycin.Also prescribed allergy medications, antihistamines (diphenhydramine, tavegil, pipolfen) and preparations containing calcium.

With this symptom of pertussis is thick sputum, inhalation using proteolytic enzymes (chymotrypsin and himopsin), but not recommended for use in the treatment of whooping cough in children under three years of inhalers.Breast kiddies need to produce suctioning mucous from the throat of the masses.In some cases, you may need to conduct nasotracheal intubation or tracheotomy.

Complications

Pertussis in adults rarely causes complications.Especially difficult is the disease occurs in infants and may be accompanied by bouts of apnea, seizures and pneumonia.

Of the other complications of pertussis in children occur nosebleeds, bronchiolitis, respiratory arrest, acute laryngitis with stenosis of the larynx, inguinal and umbilical hernia.Serious complications include: encephalopathy, lung and non-inflammatory changes in the brain, which in the case of seizures can lead to death or leave behind deafness and seizures.

Deaths from pertussis is high in developing countries and in developed countries it does not exceed 0, 04%.

Prevention Prevention is vaccination pertussis vaccine, which is part of the DTP (adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine).vaccination course involves three-fold administration of the drug.At the age of 18 months is needed revaccination.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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