2. Forms encephalitis
3. Diagnostics encephalitis
5. Prevention of tick-borne encephalitis
6. How to behave in the forest
Tick-borne encephalitis - a viral infection that affects the central nervous system.The disease causes persistent neurological, psychiatric complications and can lead to death.In nature, tick-borne encephalitis virus is carried ticks, his pockets are recorded in Siberia, the Far East, the Urals, Belarus, in the central regions of Russia.The most common disease outbreaks occur from May to July in some areas - in addition, in August and September.
TBE virus enters the human body in vivo.There are two ways of infection - directly through the bite of ticks, or through the consumption of raw milk of infected goats and cows.
borne encephalitis virus found in the saliva of the insect.Therefore, in the case of the first type transmitted virus infection in the bite point.Even if the tick was able to detect and remo
incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis virus lasts 10 - 12 days.The course of the disease depends on the subtype of tick-borne encephalitis.
the European subtype tick onset of the disease is easily confused with many other diseases - the patient complains of malaise, muscle pain, headache, nausea and vomiting, and aversion to food.This period lasts 2 - 4 days, after which the 8-day remission occurs.Then, at 20 or 30% of patients followed by a second phase with distinct signs of damage to the nervous system.The patient falls into a fever, experiencing severe headaches, his neck muscles harden.These symptoms can be added impaired consciousness, sensitivity disorders, uncontrolled motor activity and paralysis.
second subtype of tick-borne encephalitis - Far East - is more severe, often resulting in deaths.The temperature jumps up to 38 - 39 ° C, there is a sharp headache, nausea, disturbed sleep.Just after 3 - 5 days of showing symptoms of damage to the nervous system.
In clinical practice are 4 forms of the disease:
- feverish.The virus encephalitis affects the central nervous system do not manifest themselves only symptoms of fever, namely, fever, fatigue and body aches, loss of appetite, headache and nausea.The fever may last up to 10 days.Cerebrospinal fluid is not changed, the symptoms of nervous system are absent.Most favorable prognosis.
- meningeal.Against fever occurs headache, vomiting, photophobia, neck and neck muscles begin to harden.Lumbar puncture reveals signs of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid.
- meningoencephalitic.It is characterized by lesions of the brain cells, which are characterized by impaired consciousness, mental illness, seizures, weakness in the limbs, paralysis.
- Poliomieliticheskaya.It is characterized by lesions of neurons in the cervical spinal cord and resembles polio.The patient has persistent paralysis of muscles of the neck and hands, which leads to disability.
complexity of diagnosing encephalitis is one that only the external symptoms of diagnosis is impossible.Externally, the disease resembles CNS tumors, purulent processes in the brain, polio, cerebral vascular pathology, meningoencephalitis, who, typhus, influenza, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.All of these conditions require urgent and special treatment, so the doctor has to carry out additional studies.
On encephalitis epidemic data indicate, for example, visiting the forest.The most reliable results provide lumbar puncture, CSF study - they show the presence and nature of CNS.To determine the tick-borne encephalitis required tests for antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis, blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
main method of treatment of tick-borne encephalitis is a symptomatic treatment and management of complications.The patient is assigned to bed rest, antipyretics, corticosteroid agents, and supportive therapy.
In some cases, the victim is injected protivokleschevoy immunoglobulin.But it can not be considered a panacea: the time when the symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are clearly visible, the body already starts to produce its own immunoglobulin.On the other hand the results of studies, intravenous immunoglobulin may provoke a severe form of the disease.
only way to avoid the disease - to create the conditions in which the risk of infection is reduced to zero.Under natural conditions, carried out anti-epidemic measures on forest clearing, aviaopyleniyu territories.Before visiting the forest in a potentially dangerous period of mushroom pickers, working on forest exploitation, the participants search parties used clothing, collars and cuffs smeared odorous substances, and after a visit to the forest carefully inspect clothing and body, in time to detect mites.However, the best measure of prevention of tick-borne encephalitis has been and remains vaccination.
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is indicated for all who live in endemic foci, or dwells in them.Vaccination is carried out by the main or emergency scheme.The basic vaccination scheme against tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is carried out with repeated after 1 - 3, 9 - 12 months, and repeated every 3 - 5 years.The first dose is administered in the fall, the second winter.
In emergency scheme vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis involves two injections with an interval of two weeks.The scheme used for vaccination in the spring and summer.It is worth remembering that the scheme of emergency vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is effective only for one season, after 9 - 12 months provaktsionirovannym urgently need to take the third shot.
Regardless of whether you are vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis or not, should avoid contact with ticks.It is recommended to refrain from visiting the forests, parks, areas of high bush in May and June, especially in regions where outbreaks of encephalitis are marked.The main measures of non-specific prevention of tick-borne encephalitis include the use of repellents containing permethrin or DEET, wear long sleeves and trousers, hats.
During a visit to the forest is inspected regularly pants and jacket.Remember that in the light-colored clothing is easier to see ticks.Once home, check the clothing and skin.Ticks can cling to the back or scalp to inspect these areas, use the help of friends or relatives.
If you find a tick on your skin, it can be removed with tweezers or thread tied around the head of the parasite-raskachivayusche wriggle movements, but not crushing.Then disinfect the wound.If you did not use vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, save the tick in a jar, and contact the hospital.Employees of medical facilities to determine whether a tick carrying the virus, and will appoint the necessary treatment or preventive measures tick-borne encephalitis.If within 30 days after being bitten by a rash or fever, please refer to infectious diseases.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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