Cyst neck - types , symptoms, treatment , surgery


1. Causes of cysts

2. median neck cyst

3. Lateral neck cyst

4. Treatment

neck cysts calledtumor formation of hollow, filled with liquid or gruel, and located on the front or side of the neck.This formation is the result of disruption of the normal embryonic development of the fetus and is related to congenital abnormalities.Lateral cysts can be detected immediately after birth.Median is less noticeable and found by chance in the course of the survey, or many years later after the child grows up.In half of the cases of this type of cyst abscess, and after draining fistulas occur through the skin.Treatment of neck cysts require surgery.

Causes of cysts

cyst in the neck is the result of violations of fetal development.Cysts are divided into the branchial and tireoglossalnye.

branchial or lateral neck cyst occurs due to improper development of the first and second slits and gill arches.It is formed in the remnants of gill pockets existed in embryonic period.Usually side

cyst detected immediately after birth.In adulthood, the lateral neck cyst can reach such large proportions that compresses the larynx, the trachea and the neurovascular bundle.And with festering cysts formed gill fistulas or fistulae that do not heal on their own.Formation of lateral neck cyst occurs at 4-6 weeks of gestation.

Tireoglossalnaya or median neck cyst develops in the embryo due to incomplete reduction thyroglossal duct.Normally, this embryonic course should disappear, but when it does not form a closed cavity.Median cyst of the neck is rarely allow themselves to discover the age of one year, it is more likely to occur at the age of 2-3 years, in some cases, a cyst can develop asymptomatic and manifest itself only in adolescence.The cyst grows over time, causing festering redness, swelling and pain when swallowing.Formation median cyst occurs at 6-7 weeks of pregnancy.

median neck cyst

median neck cyst - education, usually dense and elastic.It has clear boundaries and reaches two centimeters in diameter.The share of the median cyst accounts for about 40% of all cysts of the neck.If swallowed, the cyst is shifted because it's a bit soldered to the hyoid bone and the mobile, but has no adhesion with the skin.If the median cyst in the neck area is closer to the root of the tongue, because of her language a little raised, causing a violation of swallowing and speech.In manual palpation of the tumor does not cause pain, but with age the contents of the cyst will increase.

In 60% of cases, the median cyst abscesses, becoming a tenderness and swelling, as well as causing pain when swallowing.Along with the cyst swollen and nearby tissue.Median cyst of the neck with festering can reveal spontaneously.This phenomenon is called the median fistula neck.Fistula can be both point and subtle, and are clearly visible.If the recognition of the most medial neck cysts can cause difficulties to recognize the median fistula is quite easy.

Median cyst of the neck can be confused with dermoid cyst.However, unlike the median cysts, dermoid cyst is more dense and does not move when swallowing.According to the median cyst symptoms can resemble lymphangitis and lipoma, but these formations usually have indistinct borders and large in size, a soft and flexible, their content increases.In order to clarify the diagnosis, a doctor conducts neck ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.

Lateral neck cyst

Neoplasms of this type are usually located in the middle or upper third of the neck.Lateral neck cysts are located next to the internal jugular vein to the neurovascular bundle and can be single-chamber or multi-chamber.If serious side cyst increases in size, it is able to squeeze the nervous, vascular tissue and nearby organs.Lateral neck cysts are more dangerous than the median, if only because that are capable of malignant transformation.When festering side and forms a cyst opened gill unhealed fistula or fistula.

If the side is not a cyst compresses adjacent organs and abscesses, it is usually not painful.By turning the head in the opposite direction, the lateral cyst clearly emerges in the neck.In contrast, the median neck cyst, lateral palpation causes pain.The skin over the cyst does not change, the cyst itself is mobile and flexible.External lateral neck cyst can resemble lipomas, neuromas or signs of Hodgkin's disease.When the side festering cyst easily confused with lymphadenitis and phlegmonous adenitis.For accurate diagnosis is carried out with a puncture fluid cytology specimens.In addition, it can be assigned to ultrasound sensing fistulography with contrast administration.

Treatment Treatment of neck cysts require surgery.In childhood, you can remove any lateral and medial cyst of any size.Median cyst located in the neck in adults is not so noticeable, they are removed if the tumor in size greater than 1 cm

Surgical removal -. The only way to treat neck cysts.The surgeon excised the cyst together with the capsule under intravenous anesthesia.Over cyst incision area is removed and the contents of the shell.When it comes to the median cyst, during surgery on a neck cyst removed part of the hyoid bone, through which a strand of tumors.Treatment of lateral cysts is difficult because of the close location of the blood vessels and nerves.When the cyst is located at the middle of the tongue, it can be removed through an incision in the skin or by ingestion.

Another treatment strategy used in the neck cyst suppuration.It is required to open the cyst cavity and perform drainage.In acute inflammation, abscess and fistula closure is performed emergency surgery on the cyst neck.After the operation, appointed dressings, antiseptic wash cavity cyst, anti-inflammatory therapy.As a result, treatment of neck cyst cavity must scar.If it does not, it is removed within 2-3 months after the treatment of inflammation.

Fistulas also need to be removed, but it is difficult to make because of the thin wall and the winding course of the fistula.In order to perform the surgery on the cyst neck with minimal injuries in fistula introduced probe or staining a drug that will help identify the most subtle moves, invisible to the naked eye.Otherwise, possible relapse.

The most difficult is the operation on a cyst excision with lateral neck fistula as it passes between the internal and external carotid arteries.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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